o It is an illness related to poor housing (not enough sun and fresh air circulating) and
related to malnutrition (e.g. poor quality food) reduce the immune system and lead
o Not enough sleep for a long period of time can lead to TB
o It is transmitted from person to person from air droplets (no kissing, coughing, sneezing,
o Lungs are commonly attacked by TB
o Symptoms: chest pain, coughing out blood, productive & prolonged cough for many
weeks, feverish, chills, night sweats, loss of appetite and weight, paleness, fatigue, may
affect one’s sexual desires
o S. Africa, Western Africa, Western S. America, and Asia are threatened by tuberculosis.
Not so much of a threat in N. America
o Very discussed in recent years, especially after Sept 11 as a subject of bioterrorism.
o Anthrax is cause Bacillus Anthracis – a large gram-positive bacteria that forms spores
o Spores are dormant forms of bacteria when it is not in favourable conditions to grow.
o These bacteria produce toxins
o Three major types anthrax:
Cutaneous: all symptoms are on the skin
Inhalation: spores are inhaled
Gastrointestinal: spores or bacteria are ingested.
o Can lead to septicemia (bacteria multiply so much that the blood is overflowing with
these bacteria) and can lead to death.
o Cannot be detected by our senses
o Cannot be transferred from person to person
Occurring on the skin
Most common (> 95% of all cases)
When person gets in contact with the skin layer of animal (usually
When one gets in contact with the spores of anthrax, there is no
immediate reaction. There is a period (incubation period: 1-12) required
before the symptoms display themselves on the skin.
A tiny red dot forms and progresses into a bump which develops
vesicles and becomes an ulcer. There is no pain involved with this but
person may acquire fevers, swelling of lymph glands, headaches and
Compared to the other forms of anthrax, it is not as severe
80% of the cases are curable especially if the treatment is applied early
It is the most deadly and lethal type of anthrax
Incubation period: 1-60 days
Starts as any respiratory disease with: sore throat, mild fever, muscle
aches and then progresses to respiratory failure and possible shock if
75% of these cases result in death even with treatment