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Steel notes complete set-2012.pdf

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Civil Engineering
Ghani Razaqpur

STEEL PRODUCTION Steel is one of the worlds most used industrial materials and total world production of crude steel in September 2011 was 123637 million tones produced by 62 countries around the world Canada produced during the same month 109 million tonnes US 7015 million tonnes the European Union 14015 million tones and China57 95 million tonnes One can see that China produces nearly 50 of all the worlds steelHow Steel is Manufactured Steel is produced in a blast furnace shown schematically in Fig 1 which is a tall conical shaft lined with fine bricks or carbon bricksThe principal function of the furnace is to reduce the iron ore to the metalThe ore is iron oxide coming from the mineral hematite FeO and magnetite FeOHematite is commonly used 2334because itis about 70 iron The ore is fed into the top opening of the furnace in the form of pallets 10 to 40 mm in size or sinterWhen the iron content of the ore is low it is first ground into powder to remove some of the impurities and then the powder is made into pellets and combined with coke and limestone and fed into a furnace which fuses them into 10 to 40 mm pieces This is called sinter The coke limestone and iron ore are introduced into the furnace at the top and they require 68 hours to descend to the bottom where they are taken out as slag and pig iron Hot air is blown into the bottom of the furnace which quickly rises to the top The blast furnace produces socalled pig iron and slagBesides the iron ore the other raw ingredients used in the steel production are limestone and cokeCoke is made from coal by cooking coal for several hours to burn off its oil and tar content The limestone serves as a flux and helps remove the impurities from the iron orePig iron is produced according to the following chemical reaction323COFeCOOFe 232Iron orecokePig Ironcarbon dioxideThis is a simplification of the more complex reactions occurring at various temperature levels as the iron ore travels from the top to the bottom of the furnace and experiences gradually higher temperature1Fig 1Schematic Representation of A Blast Furnacecopied from a chemistry teaching website2The pig iron composition is shown below and as one can see it is rich in carbon 41 to 44 so to remove the excess carbon it is introduced into a basic oxygen furnaceFig 2 or an electric arc furnace and the final product from these furnaces is steel Table 1 Pig Iron Composition Iron Fe935950 Silicon Si030090 Sulfur S00250050 Manganese Mn055075 Phosphorus P003009 Titanium Ti002006 Carbon C41443
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