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classics 1a03 #12.doc

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Spencer Pope

Roman Urban Planning Decumanus = Principal East-West Street Cardo = Principal North-South StreetForum at Pompeii Central Square = Commercial center (marketplace) Civic Center (public buildings) Religious Buildings (Temple of Jupiter, Temple ofApollo) 1st Pompeian Style • First Style a.k.a. “Masonry Style” • From 2nd c. BC • Appearance of finemstone/expensive materials • “Samnite House” from Herculaneum Cubiculum of Villa at Boscoreale • 2nd Pompeian Style • C. 50 BC • Use of Perspective creates 3- dimensional world beyond Cubiculum of Villa at Boscoreale • 2nd Pompeian Style • C. 50 BC • ArtificialArchitecture and landscape beyond Third Pompeian Style • From c. 20-10 BC • Delicate linear designs against contrasting background • Dominantly monochromatic • Ornamental, jewel-like quality to architectural elements • Detailed scenes most commonly in miniature Frescos at Pompeii House of the Fruit Orchard, Pompeii, c.AD 40-50 Three panels: Upper: trees artificially illuminated against black background Middle: fence opening to garden (theme as 2nd style) Lower: linear ornamental design 4th Style Fresco • Developed c. 50 AD, flourishedAD 62-79 in Bay of Naples • Continues ornamental focus of 3rd style “punctured” with fictive architecture (drawn in perspective) frequented framed as panels within a larger wall • Combines elements of 2nd and 3rd styles • Theatrical Context on display Lararium: House of the Vettii • Household shrine to domestic gods • Often depicting the gods themselves • Snake = fertility of the earth Pompeii • Fish mosaic • 2nd c. BC • Pompeii c. 100 BC Dioskourides of Samos. Scene from comedy Pompeii: Epicurean Mosaic Memento Mori 30 BC- 14 AD Pompeii: Epicurean Mosaic • 1st c.AD • Carpe Diem Early Roman Portrait • 1st c. BC • Terracotta • Veristic portrait – Nose bent – Ears pushed forward – Nasal-labial lines – Furrows in forehead • Detailed portrait: – Strands of hair – Pupils depicte Roman Portraiture • Ancestor Portraits • Republican Verism • Literal representations of individual faces • Man carries masks of his ancestors (funerary procession); images kept in the atrium as reminder of family; importance of the specific family/family line Roman Baths and Bathing 4th Century Census Documents from Rome: 860 Small Baths 11 Thermae 5th century Census of Constantinople 150 Small Baths (approx) 8 Thermae A Day at the Bath
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