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Origins of Rome.docx

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Department
Classics
Course Code
CLASSICS 1A03
Professor
Spencer Pope

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Rome 10/29/2013 4:16:00 PM Rome  Traditional foundation date = 753 BC  753-509 BC = monarchy  ruled by kings  509-27 BC = republic  27 BC = empire  3 phase nd  Roman 2 Century AD is when Rome was at its peak, followed by a slow empirical decline  The end of the roman empire is controversial (no specific date yet) Beginning of Rome… th 8 Century BC  Western coast of the Italian Peninsula  Located on River Tiber  Latium – central western Italy where Rome was founded & grew to be capital city of the Roman Empire  Didn’t show much advancement until 5 century BC o There were signs that Rome would dominate the central Mediterranean  Two hills located  one side Capitoline Hill, and the other Palatine Hill o Early signs of civilization were found here  Acropolis of Rome The River Tiber  Septimontium: 7 Hills o Capitoline Hill o Roman Forum o Palatine Hill (said to be acropolis of Rome) The Archaeology of Roman History  First accounts of Roman History: 3 -2 c. BC o Historians = annalists = year-by-year accounts were recorded  Gave us information about reconstructing Rome’s history in terms of politics o Epic poets = patriotic accounts of earlier days  Poetry tells oral traditions, religious hymns, folklore, their celebrations  Ceremonies honouring the decease recounted episodes of their lives, retold again and again to bring honour to the bloodline  Also recounted episodes of their lives, religious right as moments of gathering and activity recorded as deceased/remember as a member of community/individual personalities o Folklores = tales about the origin of the community o Romans generated their own history and valued their past: they looked back as much as forward & esteemed tradition and values of earlier times (maiores)  Maiores = greater generations (saw ancestors this way)  Romans always failed to live up to those standards Titus Livius (Livy) and P. Vergilius Maro (Vergil)  Livy, Ab Urbe Condita (from the foundation [of Rome]); c. 25 BC, Livy wrote c. 700 years after the foundation and earliest events at Rome  Verfil, The Aeneid, (c. 19 BC) poetic account of the foundation of Rome, links Rome’s origins back to the Trojan War through hero Aeneas, who fled the sack of Troy and whose descendants founded Rome o Elevates Rome’s early history o Aeneas: Trojan warrior, fled the Sack of Troy [with Penates (household gods) wife is Creusa (left behind at Troy), son is Ascanius (also knows as Iulus)] and through his initiation, Rome is founded a. Trojan War b. Realizes it’s a lost cause c. Takes with him the pinateas d. Brings his son Ascenius (Lulus) e. Land in Latium, wife is left behind in Troy – sacrifice necessary to find a new nation Rome’s Foundation Mythology: … so difficult and huge a task to found the nation of Rome  Aeneas encountered in Italy [NOT ROME THIS IS A CITY AENEAS FOUND]: o Latinus, a local king, father of Lavinia o Lavinia, who was betrothed to Turnus, o Turnus, King of the Rutulians o Turnus killed by Aeneas o Aeneas married Lavinia, City Lavinium was founded  12 generations after the generation of Lavinium o Rhea Sylbia  descendant of Aeneas  Gets pregnant with the Mars God  Twins are produced (Romulus and Remus th th [5 c. BC and 15 c. AD])  put into a basket and sent down the River, nursed and raised by a she-wolf (SHAKIRA)  Sat on a hill and decided that Roma Urbs (wanted to create a new community)  Romulus killed his brother because they fought about who would rule the land  Lapis Niger o Found in between the forum (the valley between two hills by the River Tiber) o “Black Rock” o Grotta Oscura Tufa th Late 6 c. date o Inscription “RECEI” = early form of “REX” and Latin word for “King”  Grave marker for king? DNA of Roman Art  Roman adoption of Greek Art and Architecture  Architecture o City planning, religious architecture (Greek Arch Orders), domestic architecture  Sculpture o Terracotta sculpture, architectural sculpture  Roman Art o New product of Greek & Italic Influences  Example: Etruscan Temple construction: 1. Stone foundation 2. Walls in mudbrick 3. Wooden columns (Tuscan order) 4. Terracotta roof tiles/architectural terracottas 5. Acroteria in terracotta = epiphany of the gods  Early Roman Temple: Capitolium Triad o Dedicated to Jupiter (Zeus) o Shared his space with his wife Juno (Hera) as well as Minerca (Athena) o 3 lead deities recognized within the city in this triad th  Estruscan Temple (7 c. BC): o Prostyle (porch on only one side), tripartite cella, sits on podium, access is limited to the front, need to go up the Eastern side o Non-symmetrical  Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus Capitolinus (c. 500) o A hybrid of two traditions coming together o Columns here appeared within Greek architectural orders Augustus (GAIUS JULIUS CAESAR OCTAVIANUS)  Ruled 27 BC – AD 14  Grandnephew and adopted son of Julius Caesar in 44 BC when Caesar was killed  27 BC = GIVEN TITLE ‘AUGUSTUS’ BY SENATE “FIRST CITIZEN”  Held veto powers, thus no one could oppose his initiatives  Established Role of Emperor  He became so powerful by occupying so many positions in the Roman state that in the end, HE was the Roman state  Romans were at way so they needed a strong leader and Augustus filled those roles  Senate named him first citizen of Rome  Didn’t destroy Roman constitution o Held so many positions so no one could challenge him o He established the role of Emperor o Rome moved from one form of government to the next o A master at creating an image and program of iconography – that made people believe that he was just a ruler and what he was doing was right  propaganda  Created monuments across the city propaganda The Campus Martius under Augustus  Home of the Roman army  Improve the city so his name could be attached to it  Improve city to improve his role Res Gestae Divi Augusti  Senate voted to consecrate the alter of Augustan peace  Good way of presenting himself  Still survives today  Earliest myth history on the status and presents himself November 5 , 2013 th 10/29/2013 4:16:00 PM Otium = Leisure, free time, peace (of mind)  Horace o Talks about the down view of tranquility o Otium - Quiet contemplation, pursuit of the arts (poetry) at his own pace, away from the crowds of the city, with privacy of his farm o To know oneself a little bit better, to become a more knowledgeable human being  Catullus (poet) o Otium - Unconstructive time, lost to mulling over his loss, trapped in extremely personal
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