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Lecture 5: Pan-Hellenic Sanctuaries

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Spencer Pope

October 8, 2013 Lecture 5: Pan-Hellenic Greek Sanctuaries Three Periods of Greek History 1. Archaic Period (600-480 BC) 2. Classical Period (480 – 323 BC) a. Persian sack ofAthens until the death ofAlexander the Great) 3. Hellenistic Period (323 – 327 BC) a. Death ofAlexander the Great until the principate ofAugustus from Rome) Pan-Hellenic Sanctuaries  Asanctuary with a festival dedicated to the Gods  Athletic competition o Olympia (Olympian Games) o Delphi (Pythian Games) o Nemea (Nemean Games) o Isthmia (Isthmian Games)  Aristocrats as participants – means of glory  Open only to those who spoke Greek—no barbarians Olympia  Site began its life dedicated to Zeus Charioteer figurine  All Greeks were welcome from c. 750 BC =  Sanctuary of Zeus victorious athlete  First Olympic games held in 776 BC  Votives – and offering to fulfill a vow; a gift to the God o Anumber of them were made of terracotta or bronze Bronze Tripod th  Olympia, 8 c. BC  Body was hammered bronze  Legs and handles were molded bronze Atlis (Sanctuary) at Olympia  Located in a secret grove in Olympia Olympia – Temenos Wall  Marks the sacred boundary of the sanctuary o Marks the ground going from a non-sacred place to a sacred place th  4 c. BC  Similar to Mycenaean fortification walls Olympia – Temple of Hera  Earliest cult activity regarded to the temple of Zeus  Detail, columns of East Façade  C. 590 BC  Early transitional stage from wood to stone in columns  Built early Olympia - Gela Treasury  C. 6 century BCE  Held gifts for the Gods  Meant as a conspicuous display of wealth and identity of polis  Furthest treasury to the east – probably the first one built Olympia – Sikyon Treasury  Dedicated by Myron the tyrant after he won the chariot, c. 648 BC – Pausanias  Used for storage  Best preserved Athletic Buildings at Olympia Stadium  Footraces = 1 stade = approx. 200 m Gymnasium  Athletes were often sent to Olympia to train before the tournament The Olympic Games  Events from 8 c. (original events) o Stadion (200 m) o Pentathlon o Wrestling  Events from c. 680 BC o Chariot Race (4–horse) o Boxing  Events from c. 650 BC o Pankration (mix of bowling and wrestling) o Horse Race  Events from c. 500 BC o Apene (Mule race) o Kalpe (Mare race) o Synoris (2-horse chariot race) Temple of Zeus  470 – 457 BC  Most striking monument of the site  30 m by 70 m (the largest temple at the time)  One of the most renowned buildings of the Doric period  6 x 11 columns  Only the Parthenon was able to surpass its size  Transition from Archaic to Classical architectural period Cult Statue of Zeus  ―Chryselephantine‖ Technique  Added 30 years later  Athenian sculptor Phidias  Colossal size  Inspired by the Chryselephantine statue ofAthena Parthenos in the Parthenon  Coins give a depiction of what the statue looked like Temple of Zeus (Continued) East Pediment  Oinomaos, Zeus (center) and Pelops  Static, even architectural in composition, heraldic, engaging West Pediment  Chaotic, no or
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