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Lecture 7

Lecture 7: Hellenistic World

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Spencer Pope

October 22, 2013 Lecture 7: The Hellenistic World The Hellenistic Period  323-327 BC  Archaic: 600 – 480 BC  Classical: 480 -323 BC  Begins with death ofAlexander the Great  Ends whenAugustus comes into power and Roman empire develops  Shift of political entity  Large kingdoms replaced the polis as the dominant political formation o Smaller than an empire but bigger than polis  Development of urban space o More extensive urban planning; new building types  Return of Palaces as building types = KINGS  Return of monumental tombs to honour kings  Shift away from equality The Macedonians  Greece dominated by Macedonians (tribe/kingdom in Northern Greece) from 338 BC o Even the Spartans fell to the Macedonians  Took out individual city states  Macedonians never had city states  Under Macedonian Kings, Greek territory expanded as far as India o Furthest extent that Greek culture reached  Macedonians spoke a dialect of Greek, but it was so far from standard Greek that many considered it a different language  King Phillip of Macedon: 360 – 336 BC  KingArthur III “The Great”: 336 – 323 BC Macedonia  Borders still debated today  Ancient capital: Vergina Vergina  Contains palace of Philip  Many elaborate tombs  Ancient name: Aigai “Royal” Palace at Vergina  An enormous house  Two open areas – peristyles o Similar concept at Knossos  Private & domestic residence on monumental scale  Storage & religious functions absent Royal Tomb at Vergina  Ramps leading to burial  Tombs look like houses/temples Tomb II  c. 340 BC  “Tomb of Philip” o Philip died 336 BC  Located under a mound of earth  Vaulted ceiling to tomb (dry masonry)  Chamber tomb  Painted bright white to resemble a temple  Fresco depicting a hunting scene o Associated with elite class; power & judgement (carefully pursuing prey) Larnax  Gold  Embossed  Super-elite; large amount of wealth imbued Reconstructing Philip of Macedon  Skull fragments found o Cremated remains were imperfectly burned  Fragments show an eye injury consistent with the one Philip had Identifying the Tomb of Philip II 1) Pottery, small finds, fresco and architectural style of exterior indic
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