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Lecture 8

Lecture 8: Origins of Rome

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McMaster University
Spencer Pope

October 29, 2013 Lecture 8: The Origins of Rome Rome  Traditional foundation date: 753 BC  753 – 509 BC: Monarchy  509 – 507 BC: Republic  27 BC: Empire o End date is controversial; 736 AC? Latium  Located on River Tiber Roman Urbs  Septimontium: 7 hills o Capitoline Hill o Roman Forum o Palatine Hill TheArchaeology of Roman History  First accounts of Roman History: 3d nd – 2 c. BC  Historians: annalists, year-by-year accounts  Epic Poets: patriotic accounts of earlier days o Oral tradition, religious hymns, folklore o Ceremonies honouring the deceased recounted episodes of their lives, retold again and again to bring honour to the bloodline  Romans venerated their own history: they looked back as much as forward & esteemed traditions and values of older times (maiores)  Maiores = Greater Generations Titus Livius (Livy) and P. Vergilius Maro (Vergil)  Livy, Ab Urbe Condita (From the foundation [of Rome]); c. 25 BC, Livy wrote c. 700 years after the foundation and earliest events at Rome  Vergil, The Aeneid, (c. 19 BC) poetic account of the foundation of Rome, links Rome’s origins back to the Trojan War through heroes Aeneas, who fled the sack of Troy and whose descendents found Rome Rome’s Foundation Myths: Virgil’sAeneid, inter alia  Aeneas: Trojan warrior, fled the Sack of Troy with Penates (household gods)  Wife is Creausa (left behind at Troy), son isAscanius (also known as Iulus) Rome’s Foundation Mythology  Aeneas encountered in Italy: o Latinus, a local king, father of Livinia, o Lavinia, who was betrothed to Turnus, o Turnus, King of the Rutulians o Turnus killed byAeneas o Aeneas married Lavinia, founded Livinium  Rhea Silvia (Descendant ofAeneas) = Mars -> Romulus and Remus Wolf and Twins  She-wolf Nursing Romulus and Remus  5 c. BC and 15 c.AD Lapis Niger  “Black Rock”  Grotta Oscura Tufa  Late 6 c. date  Inscription “RECEI” o Early
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