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Classics Roman Baths November 12.docx

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McMaster University
Spencer Pope

Classics Roman Baths November 12, 2013 Bath houses had activities other than just bathing End of 4 century ad had 856 The presence of a bath was the claim of roman territory Orgins: Italian influence; modest baths through 3 and 2 century Folf medicine Farm houses in campainia and latium were the first appearance Natural thermo- mineral baths Gender devided baths in Campania Greek: Baths not as complex Baths activites; Morning Negotium – business time Afternoon: Otium – leaisure Steps of baths: Apodyterium: Changing room Cubbies for clothes, theft common Apply oil and dust for exercise Exercise tunic Palaistra: Exercise area Natatio: Light swim Tepidarium: warm room, not always a bath - Scrape off excess dirt and oil from exercise with strigil Caldarium: hot bath Fridgaruilm: cold bath Other activites: Feeod drink Landries Prostitution Sun bathing in heliocamina Oil massage in alepterion, destructorim, untiroum Why? Socializing Pleasurable Health benefits Conspicuous consumption Mixing of classes: Patrician, Plebeian, slave Lack of clothes to indicate status, judged on physique Certain clubs and colleges had private baths. Criticisms: - Senecas description: not keen on baths, excess food drink and pleasure - Presence of woman, prostitiues and nudity - Effeminacy: too much bathing weakens the body, depiliation - Women could become manly if they spent too much time at the baths- bathing was manly - Criminal activity: Violence and theft Organized: Varro and Vitruvius: original baths separated into male and female sections Majority have single set designs, unisex Palaestra surrounds on the three sides usally Hypocaust system: A furnace that heats from below Heat through floors, walls, vaults Suspended floor (suspensurae on Pillars (Pilae), heated by furnace Heating the walls: Uniquely Roman invention Tubuli: Terracota Water System: Bronz Boilers above paraefurnia Testudines aloveolorum: Semi- cylindrical container in bath wich circulated the water Water supply: Early baths with well buckets Later waterwheel and resivoir (40000) Thermae (public) vs Balneae (private) baths Stabian Baths: Earliest style Development of the thermae: Built as propaganda tools Baths of Agrippa: 25 CE, campus Martius- first imperial baths Themae of nero: 62 CE Campus Martius Baths or Trajan: 98-117 CE emperor Optimus Princeps Major building: Forum and market and business Baths of titus and Trajan Baths of Caracalla: 198-211 CE Baths 212- 219 CE, Construction for another decade after, 300 acers 2000 cubic meters for baths and 1000 for natation Run of water used for grain mills Sclupture: Pope paul 3 took art from bath to decorate Farnese Palace Farnese Hercules, 10ft 6in tall Copy of greek original by lippus Weary after final labour Farnese Bull, 3 century Baths of Diocletian:284-305 CE Fomed the tetrarchy Baths 298-306 CE End of baths: Decrese in 7 century CE West : Dark ages East: Challenge power by islam slowed production, classical bathing culture continued Embraced by Islam Baths Of Diocletian: 298-306 Architecture for Posterity: Roman Apmphitheater: C. 80-70 BC Amphitheater: Roman form literally, “double theater” Fopr gladiatorial games, ect. Concrete Construction Roman Speech and games Principle 5: Ludi scanici= theatrical performance Ludi circenses= chariot racing in the circus Venationes= Games with animals (hunt, held in circus as well as amphitheater) Munera= Gladiatorial Games, Munera originally took place in the circus, later in amphitheaters, but also in theaters Stadium games (footrace, light activites) Roman Spectacle and games Roman games vs Greek games Greece: Athletic competition at pan-Hellenic sites: Delphi, Olympia - Citizens preformed for money and prizes - Games were for only greeks - Games were religiouse aspects Rom
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