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History 1M03.docx

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McMaster University
Graeme Ward

History 1M03: January 10 Minoan and Mycenaean Greece: Bronze Age Greece Periodization of Greece  Minoan Civilization o C. 270-1600 BCE  Mycenaean Civilization o C. 1900-1200 BCE  Iron Age or ―Dark Age‖ Greece o 1100-776 BCE  Archaic Period o 776-480 BCE  Classical Period o 480-323 BCE  Hellenistic Period o 323-31 BCE Sources of Bronze Age Greece  No written greek sources until at least 7hcentury BCE—Homer o Homer’s Iliad, Odyssey o For greeks all before that is prehistory- myth and legend  Physical record (archaeology) o Structures graves o Wall paintings, sculpture, painted pottery, tools, weapons o Written records on clay tablets First Greek Speakers  Middle bronze age (3000-1600 BCE)  Indo-european language group o Sanskrit, Greek, Latin, Anglo-Saxon, Russian o Eurasian peoples  Arayan Myth o Invasion into Mediterranean region, domination of local groups Heinrich Schliemann  1871- Discovery of Troy at modern Hissarlik (Turkey)  German business man, traveled to north west turkey Mycenae  1876- Schliemann discovers shaft graves at Mycenae  Death mask- mold taken of a persons face showing off ancestory The Minoans  Named after Minos, King of Crete  2100 BCE  population boom, development ―Mino’s Palace‖ at Knossos  Residential rooms, storehouses, workshops, central courtyard (unwalled)—distribution of goods ―Palace Culture‖ of Minoans  palace acted as administrative/ economic center  ―redistributive‖ economy o common in Egypt and near east o palace and town integrated  stratified, complex social order o sharp distinctions in wealth and status  Thalassocracy o Gr. Thalassa (―sea‖) and kratos (―power‖)  Colony of Thera (modern Santorini) o Wall painting (fresca) o Papyrus (paper) Influence of the east not the west. Minoan ―bull-leaping‖  An important image of the Minoan culture Linear A and B  C. 1900 BCE—Cretan pictographic writing o Developed later into more advanced linear script o Preserved on clay tablets in palace at Knossos  Sir Arthur Evans’ Theory o Tablets represent palace records? o Evans finds tablets with more advanced script o Still has not been decoded Decline of Minoans  1600 BCE-massive earthquakes o volcanic eruption at Thera  1400 BCE—wide spread distruction of palaces on Crete Mycenaean Civilization  Named after Mycenae  C. 2000 BCE—early indo-european peoples ―move‖ into Greece  Linear B o Deciphered in 1953 (Michael Ventris and John Chadwick) o Identified as early form of Greek alphabet Tombs and Graves  Schliemann and later archaeologists find many examples around Mycenae of two types of graves: o Shaft graves o Tholos tomb  1600-1400 BCE o weapons, armour. jewellerry o Mycenaean elite  Invested in massive tombs and fortifications  Weapons buried with people advertising their status after they die, sometimes pottery found aswell Mycenaean Power (1400-1200 BCE)  Palaces at Mycenae, pylos, Tiryns, Thebes o Smaller versions across mainland Greece  Similiarities to palace culture to that of Minoan Greece o Administrative/economic centers o Centralized control over resources and population o Centralized taxation  Differences o Smaller, walled citadels o Cyclopean stone blocks o Replacement of central courtyard with megaron Lions Gate  ―twin lions, son of Atreus‖ Mycenaean Greece and the Wider World  Mycenaean’s fairly minor players o ―ahhiyawa‖ (―Achaeans‖ in Hittite) o ―king of ahhiyawa‖ and conflict with ―wilusa‖ (Troy)  hegemony among Mycenaean’s? o No evidence for one, dominiant king  Extenstive trade in east Mediterranean o Assyrian empire, Egypt, hittites in Anatolia (turkey) o Cities in Syria/Palestine (sidon, tyre, Byblos)  The palace was a production center, place of manufacturing  Wide use of pottery used by kings  Amphora – type of pottery mainly used Administration and government  Titles o Wanax- ―king‖ (religious, military, judicial functions) o Lawagetas- ―leader of the people‖ or ―war leader‖ o Korete/prokorete- ―district governor‖ o Quasireu- ―town official‖ o Pasireu- ―‖king‖  Administration o Kingdom with central, prominent city/citadel and surrounding lands o Lands divided into provinces o Complex bureaucracy o Manufacturing centers (domestic, export) Social Status  Status rather than ―class‖  Sharply divided o Palace officials, managers, producers  Advertisement o Tholoi, chamber tombs o Luxury goods from import o Precious minerals (weapons) Gift exchanges  Key method for rulers to acquire prestige, forge, diplomatic ties o Circulates precious materials o Hittite king to king of ahhiyawa  ―but when my brothers messenger arrived at my home he brought me no greeting and he brought me no present‖ o no hard currency, coinage o gift exchange important for acquiring retainers  redistribute wealth warfare  wanax was a warrior king o painting in Mycenaean palaces (land and sea battles) o nature of grave goods  recruitment and organization unknown  tactics unknown  limited information  boar tusk helmets o bronze plate corselet o bronze greaves  Mycenaean ―warrior vase‖  Weapons o Bronze thrusting spears, short swords o Javelins, bow/arrow. Sling  ―figure-eight‖ and ―tower shields‖  battle chariots o prominent in near-eastern warfare o battle chariot krater  1200s BCE o produced locally o aristocratic vehicle  hunting?  Transportation? Mycenaean collapse  1250 BCE- evidence of drop-off in trade  1200s BCE- Mycenaean palaces destroyed one by one o Tiryns, pylos, Mycenae o Many nearby communities abandoned Bronze age Collapse  Egypt ―the sea peoples‖  Northern invaders o Dorian greeks o Doric a greek dialect or tribe  Sparta o Greek myth of the ―heraclidae‖ Conclusions Mycenaean Greece a stateless society  Powerful yet local kingdoms, dominated by palace-citadel  Centralized control over resources, production, population  Contrast from Egypt and near eastern states Post collapse  Egypt survives, new near- eastern states reform  Greece enters dark age January 14, 2013 1/10/2013 12:30:00 PM Dark and Early Archaic Greece Dark Age Sources Disruption vs Continuity  Palace system disappeared but the remainder of the greek population continued on as it always has  Oral culture survives  Greek language survives Greek Dialect/Groups  Dorians (Doric) o Most powerful  Aeolians (Aeolic) o More central, spread to the east  Ionians (Ionic) o Oldest group Dark Age Society Lefkandi- island of Euboea 950 BCE, houses of chiefs  Resembles a Mycenaean megaron Homer on the Dark Age  Iliad and Odyssey written in the late dark age  Basis of authority of a basileus The Oikos  Household, contains extended family as well as all pets  Centre of ones existence  Patriarchal  Patrilineal  Economically self-sufficient Dark Age Community  Larger communities (towns)  Separate, small settlements liked together through kinship, ―tribe‖ or clan (phyle)  Entire people of a region, regardless of family ties, known as laos (Athenians)  Social status and identity based on this family/clan structure Greek Renaissance  Increase in trade and commerce  Rise in population over 200- year period  Problem: no concurrent increase in land, lead to growing disparity Greek alphabet developed/adapted by the Phoenician  Instead of each character defining a symbol it denotes a sound and a vowel or a consonant PanHellenic Sanctuaries and Festival  Sanctuary to Zeus and Hera at Olympia  Sanctuaries at divine prophesy  Contests were held in honor of the Gods (running boxing poetry) Delphi (center of the world, naval)  Oracle- where someone can go in order to find divine answers o Should we go to war? o Will my baby be healthy?  Signs would be interpreted into divine answers to the questions  Pythia- get high off the gases and interpret what she says into an answer to the question, gifts would be deposited and kept in treasury o ―know thy self‖ ―nothing in excess‖ ―curb thy spirit‖ January 21, 2013 1/10/2013 12:30:00 PM Archaic Athens A
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