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CLASSICS 1M03 Lecture slides

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Graeme Ward

1Climate and GeographyGreece difficult to classify geographicallyOn the one hand fairly typical Mediterranean regionCool wet winters dry hot summers semiaridOn the other hand somewhat like EuropeNorthern types of plantlife trees geological formationsContacts also with Eurasia through Black SeaShortage of natural resources and arable land 75 of mainland Greece is mountainous Greece has to look outward Like Frogs Around a PondThe Aegean SeaPlato We sit like frogs around a pondNo part of mainland Greece is more than 35 miles from the seaThe sea is their method of travel communication and exchangeGreece Was Not a Nation StateGreek communities spread throughout mainland Greece and the MediterraneanMore than 1500Diversity of communities Common Greek language customs and religion but never a unified state The polis pl poleisGreeks would define their identity and citizenship chiefly by their polis Sources on Ancient GreecePhysical material record Clay pottery tools weaponsStructures eg temples columns walls houses Written record Inscriptions in stone and clay epigraphy Writing papyrus parchment Homer Sappho Thucydides Euripides PlatoProblem of selection and survivalIntermittent and incompleteMinoan and Mycenaean Greece The Bronze Age Periodization of GreeceMinoan Civilizationc 27001600 BCEMycenaean Civilizationc 19001200 BCEIron Age or Dark Age Greece1100776 BCEArchaic Period776480 BCEClassical Period480323 BCEHellenistic Period32331 BCE Sources for Bronzeage Greece2thNo written Greek sources until at least 7 century BCEHomer Homers Iliad OdysseyFor Greeks all before that is prehistorymyth and legendPhysical Record Archaeology Structures graves Wall paintings sculpture painted pottery tools weapons Written records on clay tablets Late Bronze AgeFirst GreekSpeakersMiddle Bronze Age 30001600 BCE IndoEuropean language group Sanskrit Greek Latin AngloSaxon Russian Eurasian peoples Aryan Myth Invasion into Mediterranean region domination of local groupsHeinrich Schliemann1871Discovery of Troy at modern Hissarlik TurkeyMycenae1876Schliemann discovers shaft graves at MycenaeSir Arthur Evans and Crete1900Discovery of the Palace at KnossosThe MinoansNamed after Minos King of Crete 2100 BCE Population boom development of several urban centres Minos Palace at Knossos17001200 BCEResidential rooms storehouses workshops central courtyard unwalledPalace Culture of MinoansPalace acted as administrativeeconomic center Redistributive economy Common in Egypt and Near East Palace and town integrated Stratified complex social order Sharp distinctions in wealth and status ThalassocracyGr Thalassa sea and kratos power Colony of Thera modern SantoriniEastern MediterraneanMinoan BullLeapingLinear A and BC 1900 BCECretan pictographic writing Developed later into more advanced linear script Preserved on clay tablets in palace at Knossos Sir Arthur Evans Theory Tablets represent palace records Evans finds tablets with more advanced script Linear A and Linear BDecline of Minoans1600 BCEmassive earthquakes Vulcanic eruption at Thera1400 BCEwidespread destruction of palaces on Crete Mycenaean Civilization3Named after Mycenae c 2000 BCEEarly IndoEuropean peoples move into Greece Linear B Deciphered in 1953 Michael Ventris and John Chadwick Identified as early form of Greek Alphabet adapted from Linear ATombs and GravesSchliemann and later archaeologists find many examples around Mycenae of two types of graves Shaft Graves Tholos tomb 16001400 BCE Weapons armour jewellery Mycenaean elite invested in massive tombs and fortifications Tomb of AtreusMycenaean Power 14001200 BCEPalaces at Mycenae Pylos Tiryns Thebes Smaller versions 12 across mainland Greece Similarities to palace culture to that of Minoan Crete Administrativeeconomic centres Centralized control over resources and population Centralized taxation Differences Smaller walled citadels Cyclopean Stone Blocks Replacement of central courtyard with megaronMegarongreat rectangular hall central hearth with throne at end Martial themes in decoration and painting Lions GateTwin lions sons of AtreusAgamemnon and MenelausMegaron at MycenaeMegaron at PylosMycenaean Greece and the Wider WorldMycenaeans fairly minor players Ahhiyawa Achaeans in Hittite King of Ahhiyawa and conflict with Wilusa Troy Hegemony among Mycenaeans No evidence for one dominant king Extensive trade in E Mediterranean Assyrian Empire Egypt Hittites in Anatolia Turkey Cities in SyriaPalestine Sidon Tyre ByblosAdministration and GovernmentTitles Wanax King religious military judicial functions Lawagetas Leader of the People or War Leader Koreteprokorete District Governors Quasireu Town Official Pasireu King later Gr BasileusAdministration Kingdom with central prominent citycitadel and surrounding lands Lands divided into provinces Complex bureaucracy
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