Classics January 22 2014
Spartan unity and stability on the basis of helot and serfdom
- Product of farms paid for equal citizenship.
- Spartas neighbors
- Achievement of unity lead Sparta to enjoy power but unity Sparta allowed them
to enjoy stability.
o One of few cities not to suffer a period of civil conflict/social strike.
- Athens in 6 century was very different in the sense that the beginning of the
century caused turmoil.
- Contrast Athens and Sparta, Athens: Ordinary farmer was at risk to become a
servent to richer Athenians.
- Athenian disunity and crisis due to impoverishment Athenian farmers
- Reduced to state of dependency to landowner
- Give up goods (Farmer)
- Sold into debt slavery as well (Some Athenians)
o Could not pay debt.
o Sold into slavery
- Fits with normative pattern- complexity, stratification, social-economic elite take
- Athens was following this pattern in history which is typical for societies in
o Greece had taken a very different path.
o Era of the polis was Farmers making decisions for themselves.
- Athens was departing from greek pattern.
- Ordinary farmers were dominated by Eupatrid (rich)
- Huge discontent at becoming dependant and enslaved to the wealthy.
- In 594/3
o Solon- Well respected in all groups
Appointed chief magastrait with emergency powers to deal with the
His political poetry survived.
Poetry was the form of writing.
Solon’s constitution and the definition of citizenship
- All naitive males including thetes, to enjoy certain protections and powers:
o Abolished obligation of hektemroi, freed enslaved Athenians, and banned
o Assembly final authority in passage of laws and decrees, and also now a
final court of appeal o Any citizen may bring public prosecution
- Elegibility for election to magistracies divided between zeugitai, hippeis and
pentakosiomedimnoi; Thetes included
o Zeugitai, least
o Next wealth group- next level of magistry
o Pentakosiomedimnoi highest level of wealth.
- The advance, hand-in-hand, of freedom and slavery
- Gave assembly judicial authority.
- Prosecute any action deemed to harm the city as a whole
- Any citizen (male) could act as prosecutor
- He gave the elite special privilages
- Continued to be barred election to office (how he held the position)
- He was given formal legal definition to citizenship
- All males were given birthright to be their own master and to be independent.
- Few were given more chance to be slaves- hard definition of who could be a slave
- Wealthy unable to extract products from citizens.
- Got Athenians would sign something that made them to keep laws in effect for at
least 10 years.
- Factions of shore, hill and plain
- Peisistratus: Controlled Athens from 546 to death in 528
o Lasting hold on government
o From the elite- leader of hill faction
o Succeeded by broadening his appeal
- Champion of people and police in principle, civic government continued and
peisistrtus built up civic institutions and civic community
- But in practice, he was autocratic ruler.
- The monarchal tendency became more apperent with succession in 528 of his sons,
hippias and Hipparchus
o Held it t birth
o More open to challenge
o Increasingly exercised control in forceful way.
o Made them unpopular.
o Overthrown in 510
- Their rule lacking in legitimacy and more coercive
- Peistratids typical of achaic tyranny (Tyrannos: Tyrant)
- Built Athenian strength at home and abroad.
- Never built palace, but glorified Athena’s temple. (enlarged)
- Hipparchus assassinated was assassinated
- 510: Cleomanese and Spartans overthrew hippias. Invited by Cleisthenes
o Isagoras defeats Cleisthenes
o Cleithenes makes himself champion of the people and overthrows
isagoras o Isagoras appeals to Spartans who expel Cleisthenes.
o Cleisthenes is exiled
o Athenian Revolution:
People on own initiative expel isagoras and the Spartans, acting as
Clesthenes did not become Tyrant
Demos = the people
- Cleithenes’ reforms of 508/7 and the foundations of democtac:
o 10 tribes bringing people together across attica as one demos (Each tribe:
1/3 costal, urban, inland)
o He divided them. Various communities were divided up based on location.
o Tribal identity was above local identity.
o 10 regiments- one per tribe
o 500 instituted
o Participated in polis as ‘the Athenian people’ acting in their on right.
o Laying the foundation for democracy.
o No full democratic government.
- Act as one self-determining people
January 27 2014
- Against spartas attempt to take over Athens.
- Turned to Persia- largest empire in the world at the time. - In 559 BC, Cyrus the great took over a small area called Persia
- He acquired an empire in his death 530
- Darius extended further into india
- Athenians sent ambassadors to ask for him for help
- Gave tokens of earth and water.
o Oath of submission
o Accept king as overlord.
- Events of 508 charged those in Athens
- All naitive males could be mobilized just in defense of their city
- Athens felt a large army.
- Major victories against Sparta and allies.
- Athens had a lot of confidence and didn’t see the need for Persian defense
- The tokens didn’t count.
- The demos was asserting freedom and self-determination.
- To the Persians, they felt betrayed and had to be punished for breaking the oath.
Great Clash > Greek vs. Persians
- Clash between Athenians freedom and Persian ideology
- Persians had taken control of what today would be Turkey (Ionian)
- Rebelled against Tyrants
- Athenians and Ereterians sent help to Ionians in their 499-493 revolt
- Lead them in 490 to Persian war.
- Persians attempted to recover on a surprise attack on Athens.
- Ran to Athens and warned Athens (the origin of the marathon run.)
- King was succeeded
- Xerxes’ invasion of Greece in 480
- Persian grand army: ‘imperial unity parade’
- Most greek states did not fight.
- All north states surrendered
- Only 31 resisted including Athens and Sparta
- Certain that the army would not be able to survive from foraging
- Army was dependant on Navy
o Artemision (win by Persian, but still unable to get what they wanted)
Athenians surrounded Persian fleet
No numerical advantages after this for the Persian ships
o Xerxes’ withdrawl
He could not take the risks of a rebellion
Never fully gained authority back Murdered in 465
o Insite to political military opportunity
o Athens found silver in Laureion (482)
o Instead build a fleet
o Opened up citizen sailors
o Spent silver on warships
January 29 2014
Pentekontaetia: The fifty years
- End of Persian wars - Start of wars between Athens and Sparta
- Conflict between greeks themselves.
- Athens and Sparta go into competition.
- Victory in Persian wars caused for encouragement
o ‘common greekness’
- Enemies from the east- barbarians
- Natural leader is Sparta.
o Deeply concervative
o Priority was to maintain their community.
o Build wall against Spartans.
470s: panhellenism: Greeks vs. barbarians
- Created fleets
- Effectively strategy of preventative medicine.
- Maintain standing fleet to keep Persian ships out to stop any war from happening.
- This was the Athenians
- Athenians proposed that they would stand at a naval alliance.
- Most chose to contribute money to build ships.
- Allies paid
Late 470s – 460s
- Greeks took control
- Persians weren’t coming back
- Many athen’s allies stopped paying
- Athenians weren’t ready to leave- They felt betrayed.
- Athens were ready to use fleet to prevent quitting.
- In 450s patrols became focused on signing up new members.
- Paloponnesian was taken by Sparta
- Athens is less self-sufficent
- Becoming more like the Persians
- Athens ended up losing a lot of men on their ships
- They ended up getting the treasury from delos to Athens. Dedicated to Athen.
- Advanced hand in hand with empire.
- With each feeding the other.
- Poor Athenians gained back land primarily.
- Financial interests.
- Common people were supporters in imperialistic
- Paid for sitting as a jury member
- Wealthy becoming very wealthy
- Democracy causes a hindrance of the display of wealth.
- Imperialism reached overstretched.
- Tried to control of Boeotia - Sparta decided to take a stand
- Battles that got the best of Athens.
Feb 3 2014rd
Pericles’ city-island strategy
Plague of 430 BCE
430-425: Spartans stalled. Athenian victories
- The rules and rituals of Hoplite warfare reflected the interests of the citizen-farmer-
- Best Interest of hoplite farmers to…
o limit the duration of warfare to the agriculturally low season. o The only time they could afford to be away from their farm.
o Limit the damage of warfare to their homes and their farms
o To preserve themselves
- Warfare without strategy- only tactics.
- One was not supposed to persue the opponent.
- Imprisoned should not be executed but ransomed back.
- Limited cost of war.
- Athens was no longer a traditional polis and is no longer a state of Citizen farmer
- Interests were not in regular hoplite warfare.
- Democracy and imperial naval power.
- Military participation undermined political participation
- Allowed Athens to sustain empire
o Generated considerable wealth around Athens
o Athens was uniquely adapted at the projection of power.
- Pericles had a strategy:
o Athens would be defensive, transforming into the city island.
o Engage in war of attrition to pick off Sparta’s Allies.
o Terrible consequence
o All people trapped, plague broke out.
o Pericles died too along with 20% of the population.
o Athenians stuck to their plan
o Went in Athens’ favor.
- 429: Battle of naupactus
o Defeated ships (Athens defeated)
o Superiority of ships, boldness of military demand.
o Out-fought pelopnysian fleet
- 428/7 Mytilene
o Athens blockaded city
- In 425: Pylos
o Surprise landing
o Within Spartan territory
o Defeating hoplites in Sparta on land.
o Capturing 120 citizen soldiers of Sparta
o Soldiers would have rather died
- War rages on.
- Entire greek war
- Relatively safe
- War between Allies
- Each side looked for total defeat of the other.
- Rules of war were increasingly abandoned.
- The phebans? Convinced the Spartans to destroy Plataea- kill men and sell
o Athens support rebellion against oligarchy o Massacre
- Tens of thousands of greeks were killed, cities wiped out.
- Stresses of total war destroyed fabric
- All the norms no longer applied.
- Greatest war on the Greeks, inflicting calamity
- Creativity- Socrates, Euripides
- Brasidas Northern campaign
o Rebellion for Athens.
o In 491 reached a treaty
o Amphibpolis did not want to be allies, and the agreement fell apart
o Sparta wanted Pilos back,
o Neither side declared peace to be breached.
o They were at a cold war with one and other.
- In 415, Alcibiades and Athens; rash Sicilian expedition: 415-413
o Took advantage of local dispute to take entire island of Sicilly
o Very big risk- not related to conflict.
o Tensions are great
o Athens decides to launch another war.
o Athens wanted all of it- Turned out to be a disaster.
Ciricuse was a problem/new challenge
They were like Athens: Imperialistic naval democracy.
• Became naval over time.
Proved a match
o Gylippus- Resourceful and risk taking.
o Tens of thousands of Athenians were killed or worked to death in slavery
o Wave of revolts
Shut in the city, supported on grain.
Aimed at the north.
The Persians dealt with the greeks using their wealth. Took
advantage of rivalry.
Sparta got gold from Persia for what they lost and built fleet.
o Elite anti-democratic Spartans overthrough democratic and started
o Athenians were able to summon energy to survive th
February 10 2014
- Resource-rich but weakly centralized Argead kingdom of Macedonia
- 359: Philip II becomes king
- Philip unifies Macedonia under strong royal rule and reorganizes army.
- 357-338: Macedonia expansion: Chaleidice, Thessaly then all Greece as well s
Illyria and Thrace
- Systematic Military reform:
o Baggage train
o Macedonian Phalanx (sarissas)
50 foot long pipes
Difficult and heavy- required training.
Dense row of spear points. Phalanx warfare didn’t work because of the break in formation from
Cavalry is used systematically.
o Light armed scounts and Skirmishers
o Torsion catapold and siege warfare
o 338: Battle of Chaerona: Macedonians vs. Greeks (Theban Sacred Band)
o 357-338: Macedonian expansion: Chalcidice. Thessaly, then all Greece,
as well as Illyria and Thrace
Philip’s domination of Greece
- Declare war on Persia in revenge for the Persian war
- Why? Identification with the Greeks, unite the Greeks…
League of Corinth
War with Persia
Panhellenism and Macedonian expansionism
336: Philip assassinated
- Achievements may fall apart.
- Alexander III the great’s troubled succession
- Eliminated Rivals
- Possible that the mother was responsible for death.
- Defeat Thracians and Illyrians
- Destruction of Thebes
- 334- Declares war on Persia
- Killed rivals
- Killed the city of Phebes.
- Declares are on Persia
- Darius III (336-330): The Political necessity of shoring up his authority and imperial
unity by proving military might
- Despite Memnon of Rhodes’ proposal of scorched earth policy, Darius gives
Alexander the battle he needs.
- Refuse Memnon’s battle
- Force him to withdraw from Asia.
- Deprive him of supply.
- Refusing to meet Alexander in the field, they could use their Navy.
o Macedonia did not have a good Navy
- Compel Alexander to go back to Greece.
- Claimed that Alexander was a descendant of Achilles
- Memnon’s Aegean Stratagy
- Alexander’s Mediterranian coast counter strategy - Memnon die and Darius Abandons his strategy in favour of direct Military
- Battle of
- Alexander conquers Phoenicia and Egypt
- Battle of Gaugamela (331)
- Darias Assassinated (330) and Bessus declared Artaxerxes V
February 12 2014
- Passage Monday after reading week.
- Monday to Sunday- DO NOT DO BEFORE TUTORIAL/LECTURE
- Invaded the Persian empire
- Army of 5000- but first goes to Tory to pay respects to Achilles
- Give Memnon’s strategy
- Fleet sailing
- Alexander had a counter strategy to Memnon.
o Take port cities in Mediterranean coast
o Block them off from the empire. - Armies met at the battle of Isus
- Depriving Navy of ports and defending the fronts.
- Egypt accepted Alexander.
- Darius would choose the site of battle.
- Darius fled to the upper part of the Persian empire.
- Darius was assassinated (330) and Bessus declared Artaxerxes V
- Put Macedonians in greeks in charge of government
- Persepolis burned
- Yet the successor of Darius
- Alexander burned the palace to the ground.
- Burning to the ground showed that he was in charge, but not taking over from them
- Vengeance against Persia.
- Alexander declared himself as the successor of Darius
- Buried Darius respectfully.
- Experimenting- Kept Persians in positions.
- Installed garrisons to make sure they remained loyal.
- Persian resistance dissolved.
- Bessus was handed over to him. Alexander gave bessus over to Persian officials to
kill for someone who murdered a king.
- 330-327: Refuction of Bactria and Sogdiana- marriage to Roxana but Greco-
Macedonian governors and colonies.
- Married a local princess.
- His own army was giving him trouble.
- Did not like what they saw of Alexander’s adoption of Persian Tyrants. Greeks and
Macedonia was going to vow to the king. Through Proskynesis (Unknown, but form
- Parmenion was assassinated.
- Purges of old ranks (330-328)
- Alexanders own royal pages tried to assassinate him
- Alexander was not ready to turn back.
- Replaced troops with Persian troops
- Conquest to Indus vally 327-325
o Found a complex of old people.
- Alexander is used in the rivalry of local princes.
- Last battle/victory is the battle of Hydaspes against porus.
- Thousands of his men died- ten years after his first crossing in to Asia.
- Planned for invasion of Arabia.
- Purge of governors again.
- Preferred Crucification instead of stoning.
- Alexander was trying to incorporate new rule.
- He took two daughters of Persian kings as brides.
- Took final step to divine kingship after death of his childhood friend Hepheastion.
o Ordered horses shaved and ban of music
o Made him a semi-divine hero
o Divine honors to himself. - Created Greco-Persian state.
- Never return to Greece
February 24 2014
- Death of alexander 323 at Babylon is the end of the previous period and the
introduction of Hellenistic period 323-30 BCE
- Wars of successors
- By 275: Ptolemaic Egypt (Ptolemy I), Seleucid Asia (selecus !), antigonid, Macedon,
- Alexanders son still in the womb at his fathers death so he could not succeed him.
- Did not want to share power, but punish.
- Abandonment by successors of Alexander’s experiments in cultural hybridization in
favour of colonial rule
- Dependence on and use by the kings of greek soldiers and colonists
- Extraction of products of indigenous peasantly
- Greek Culture as the exclusive possession of colonial rulers.
- The colonists provided military strength and the ability to gain control of the
- The new helenistic kings took over the econoy - This extraction was to pay for their armies
- Helenistic world constantly fighting.
- Compared to the European empires- The kings and greeks would regard greekness
as the superior culture.
- If greekness was superior- colonists were interested in maintaining superiorirty.
- Greeks wanted to keep it to themselves away from indigiounous population.
- Ind. People kept as peasants.
- Greekness was limited to Greeks.
- Greek clothes, greek ways- if you did these then you would move up
- Allowing this to a few member into a small group of elite.
o Others not allowed.
Barred from the gym, citizenship etc.
• Gym was also the greek school room.
- Seleucid Israel
o Tensions between elite Hellenized Jews and Traditionalists
o Becoming helenistic was a betrayal and came between God.
- 168/7: Antiochus IV bans Jewish Sacrificed, circumcision, Sabbaths, feasts
o Felt as thought it abandoned Jewish tradition
o Seleucid king put rebellion down and determined to supress this
Outlawed all of the above.
- 167-160: Revolt of the Maccabees (hasmoneans)
o Revolt raged until 160
o Ending in compromise.
o They accepted the Seleucids
o BUT they were allowed to ruled themselves.
o Maccabees became kings.
o Jewish belief there is only one true God and the gods of other people are
- Tolerance and openness of polytheism (eg. Isis-Aphrodite)
o Religion was the few thing that brough ind. And Greeks got together.
- In Religion, Hellenistic kings wore a native rather than only Greek Face. - Worshipped Isis as the same as Aphrodite. Became one in the same
- Religion was one sphere in which the helenistic kings did not prevent them from at
the same time to reaching out to indigenous culture.
- Kings’ partronage of native religion, temples and priests
- Drawing the priestly elite into colonial rule.
- Threatened priests.
- Tri-lingual stone
- Helped learn the previous three language.
- Only encouraged greek learning
- Ptolemaic Alexandria
o Pharos Lighthouse
o Museum (Muses)
- Cultural Capital of a Greek World.
- Royal Rule and Citizen states
Old Greece: Struggle between Macedonian Hegemony and Greek Automony
o Struggled against the kings hegemonic ideals
o The great polis could not muster resources in their own right in a world
with great imperial systems
o Dwindled in political significance
o Sparta became museum city as well as Athens (University town) th
Feb. 26 2014
- In Egypt and near east, cities and states began to fall in the bronze age.
- Archaic period (c.750-480) formation of citystates off centralized Italy
- Etruria, Latium, Campania
- City-state: designates scale not kind of political organization
o Small states with one urban center
o Systems of government were very different.
- From c. 750 differention in burial
o More fancy graves
o Arms and armor.
o Honor to warrior groups.
- Beginnings urbanism form c. 700: Differentiation in housing in towns.
- State-formation: From c. 600 public temples; also city fortifications.
- Italian states: Not Greek citizen-states but aristocracies or monarchies
o Governed on Aristocracies.
- Rival city-states but broader regional identities: Etruscans, Latins
- South: Greek colonial Poleis
- Italian script from Greek.
- Greeks populating ciccilly
- Italian city states not Greek citizen-states but aristocracies or monarchies.
- Rival C-S but boarder regional identities: Etruscans, latins
- Script evolved into eachother.
- South: Greek colonial poleis
- C8th villages of roman hills coming together - Forum romanum
o Turned into religious center (roman forum)
o Put public buildings
o Raise temple of:
- By c. 600: Temple Jupiter Optimus Maximus on Capitoline
- Monarchy: Rex
- C. 625: Regina (together with temple of vesta and domus publica
o The king’s building
o Part of complex of buildings
o Aristocratic council
- C. 600: Curia Hostilia for King’s artistocratic council
- c. 500: Moncarchy replaced by aristocratic republic
- twelve tables
- republican magistrates: 2 conculs, praetor (242: 2 Praetors, 4 aediles, quaestors)
- old aristocratic council becomes senate of 300 former magistrates (C4th and C3rd:
- Popular assemblies: elected (aristocratic) Magistrates, issued decrees and laws sat
as juries but no powers to initiate or amend proposals
- Voting in centuriate assembly by wealth class.
- No one individual held office
o Two holders. (consuls)
Lead rome’s armies
Doubled to two in 242
o 4 aediles
Maintainence of streets and temples
Administrators of public funds.
- This set of magistraits did not form a co-hearent government.
o Individually separately elected.
o No one told anyone what to do.
- Senate had more and more individual authority
- Matters of religion, public finances etc.
o Determine military assignments.
- Yes or no to what magistraits proposed.
- Centuriate assembly was elitist.
o Voted according to wealth classes. Not one man one vote. Poorest
citizens votes worth the same as smaller but more wealthy group.
- Only those out of the patricial lineages with plebeians could hold office.
- C.5 + 4 struggle of the orders . - Concessions to the plebs tribunes of the plebs (sacrocanct then veto); then able to
stand for regular office.
- Physical bodies- if their body was done harm, the person would have to go through
punishment for the Gods.
March 3 2014
- Roman Mass elite shaerd a common interest in war and expansion
- First samnite war (343-341)
- Latin war (341-338)
- Rome was warlike city state
- Chief office of console was to wage war as commanders of romes armies
- Successful aristo. Revolved around military success.
- Ordinary citizens were warriors.
- Was a militia- serve city’s army for a couple months.
- Ordinary citizen soldiers
o Elite looked for glory, status and office.
o Ordinary citizens gained economically and materially.
o One of the driving engines was this common interest that the elite shed