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Sean Corner

Classics­ January 22 2014 Spartan unity and stability on the basis of helot and serfdom - Product of farms paid for equal citizenship. - Spartas neighbors - Achievement of unity lead Sparta to enjoy power but unity Sparta allowed them to enjoy stability. o One of few cities not to suffer a period of civil conflict/social strike. - Athens in 6 century was very different in the sense that the beginning of the century caused turmoil. - Contrast Athens and Sparta, Athens: Ordinary farmer was at risk to become a servent to richer Athenians. - Athenian disunity and crisis due to impoverishment Athenian farmers Hektemeroi - Reduced to state of dependency to landowner - Give up goods (Farmer) - Sold into debt slavery as well (Some Athenians) o Could not pay debt. o Sold into slavery - Fits with normative pattern- complexity, stratification, social-economic elite take control - Athens was following this pattern in history which is typical for societies in general o Greece had taken a very different path. o Era of the polis was Farmers making decisions for themselves. - Athens was departing from greek pattern. - Ordinary farmers were dominated by Eupatrid (rich) - Huge discontent at becoming dependant and enslaved to the wealthy. - In 594/3 o Solon- Well respected in all groups  Appointed chief magastrait with emergency powers to deal with the crisis.  His political poetry survived.  Poetry was the form of writing. Solon’s constitution and the definition of citizenship - All naitive males including thetes, to enjoy certain protections and powers: o Abolished obligation of hektemroi, freed enslaved Athenians, and banned debt-slavery o Assembly final authority in passage of laws and decrees, and also now a final court of appeal o Any citizen may bring public prosecution - Elegibility for election to magistracies divided between zeugitai, hippeis and pentakosiomedimnoi; Thetes included o Zeugitai, least o Next wealth group- next level of magistry o Pentakosiomedimnoi highest level of wealth. - The advance, hand-in-hand, of freedom and slavery - Gave assembly judicial authority. - Prosecute any action deemed to harm the city as a whole - Any citizen (male) could act as prosecutor - He gave the elite special privilages - Continued to be barred election to office (how he held the position) - He was given formal legal definition to citizenship - All males were given birthright to be their own master and to be independent. - Few were given more chance to be slaves- hard definition of who could be a slave - Wealthy unable to extract products from citizens. - Got Athenians would sign something that made them to keep laws in effect for at least 10 years. - Factions of shore, hill and plain - Peisistratus: Controlled Athens from 546 to death in 528 o Lasting hold on government o From the elite- leader of hill faction o Succeeded by broadening his appeal - Champion of people and police in principle, civic government continued and peisistrtus built up civic institutions and civic community - But in practice, he was autocratic ruler. - The monarchal tendency became more apperent with succession in 528 of his sons, hippias and Hipparchus o Held it t birth o More open to challenge o Increasingly exercised control in forceful way. o Made them unpopular. o Overthrown in 510 - Their rule lacking in legitimacy and more coercive - Peistratids typical of achaic tyranny (Tyrannos: Tyrant) - Built Athenian strength at home and abroad. - Never built palace, but glorified Athena’s temple. (enlarged) - Hipparchus assassinated was assassinated - 510: Cleomanese and Spartans overthrew hippias. Invited by Cleisthenes - 508: o Isagoras defeats Cleisthenes o Cleithenes makes himself champion of the people and overthrows isagoras o Isagoras appeals to Spartans who expel Cleisthenes. o Cleisthenes is exiled o Athenian Revolution:  People on own initiative expel isagoras and the Spartans, acting as sovereign demos  Recall Cleisthenes  No help.  Clesthenes did not become Tyrant  Demos = the people - Cleithenes’ reforms of 508/7 and the foundations of democtac: o 10 tribes bringing people together across attica as one demos (Each tribe: 1/3 costal, urban, inland) o He divided them. Various communities were divided up based on location. o Tribal identity was above local identity. o 10 regiments- one per tribe o 500 instituted o Participated in polis as ‘the Athenian people’ acting in their on right. o Laying the foundation for democracy. o No full democratic government. - Act as one self-determining people th January 27  2014 - Against spartas attempt to take over Athens. - Turned to Persia- largest empire in the world at the time. - In 559 BC, Cyrus the great took over a small area called Persia - He acquired an empire in his death 530 - Darius extended further into india - Athenians sent ambassadors to ask for him for help - Gave tokens of earth and water. o Oath of submission o Accept king as overlord. - Events of 508 charged those in Athens - All naitive males could be mobilized just in defense of their city - Athens felt a large army. - Major victories against Sparta and allies. - Athens had a lot of confidence and didn’t see the need for Persian defense - The tokens didn’t count. - The demos was asserting freedom and self-determination. - To the Persians, they felt betrayed and had to be punished for breaking the oath. Great Clash ­> Greek vs. Persians  - Clash between Athenians freedom and Persian ideology - Persians had taken control of what today would be Turkey (Ionian) - Rebelled against Tyrants - Athenians and Ereterians sent help to Ionians in their 499-493 revolt - Lead them in 490 to Persian war. - Persians attempted to recover on a surprise attack on Athens. - Ran to Athens and warned Athens (the origin of the marathon run.) - King was succeeded - Xerxes’ invasion of Greece in 480 - Persian grand army: ‘imperial unity parade’ - Most greek states did not fight. - All north states surrendered - Only 31 resisted including Athens and Sparta - Certain that the army would not be able to survive from foraging - Army was dependant on Navy - 480: o Thermopylae o Artemision (win by Persian, but still unable to get what they wanted) o Salamis  Athenians surrounded Persian fleet  Greek victory  No numerical advantages after this for the Persian ships o Xerxes’ withdrawl  Winter approached  Political trouble  He could not take the risks of a rebellion  Never fully gained authority back  Murdered in 465 - Themistocles o Insite to political military opportunity o Athens found silver in Laureion (482) o Instead build a fleet o Opened up citizen sailors o Spent silver on warships th January 29  2014 Pentekontaetia: The fifty years - Rounding - 479-471 - End of Persian wars - Start of wars between Athens and Sparta - Conflict between greeks themselves. - Athens and Sparta go into competition. - Victory in Persian wars caused for encouragement o ‘common greekness’ - Enemies from the east- barbarians - Natural leader is Sparta. o Deeply concervative o Priority was to maintain their community. o Build wall against Spartans. 470s: panhellenism: Greeks vs. barbarians - Created fleets - Effectively strategy of preventative medicine. - Maintain standing fleet to keep Persian ships out to stop any war from happening. - This was the Athenians - Athenians proposed that they would stand at a naval alliance. - Most chose to contribute money to build ships. - Allies paid Late 470s – 460s - Greeks took control - Persians weren’t coming back - Many athen’s allies stopped paying - Athenians weren’t ready to leave- They felt betrayed. - Athens were ready to use fleet to prevent quitting. - Pericles - In 450s patrols became focused on signing up new members. - Paloponnesian was taken by Sparta - Athens is less self-sufficent - Becoming more like the Persians - Athens ended up losing a lot of men on their ships - They ended up getting the treasury from delos to Athens. Dedicated to Athen. Imperial Democracy - Advanced hand in hand with empire. - With each feeding the other. - Poor Athenians gained back land primarily. - Financial interests. - Common people were supporters in imperialistic - Paid for sitting as a jury member - Wealthy becoming very wealthy - Democracy causes a hindrance of the display of wealth. - Imperialism reached overstretched. - Tried to control of Boeotia - Sparta decided to take a stand - Battles that got the best of Athens. Feb 3  2014rd Pericles’ city-island strategy Plague of 430 BCE 430-425: Spartans stalled. Athenian victories 429: Naupactus 428/7: Mytilene 425: Pylos. - The rules and rituals of Hoplite warfare reflected the interests of the citizen-farmer- soldier - Best Interest of hoplite farmers to… o limit the duration of warfare to the agriculturally low season. o The only time they could afford to be away from their farm. o Limit the damage of warfare to their homes and their farms o To preserve themselves - Warfare without strategy- only tactics. - One was not supposed to persue the opponent. - Imprisoned should not be executed but ransomed back. - Limited cost of war. - Athens was no longer a traditional polis and is no longer a state of Citizen farmer soldiers - Interests were not in regular hoplite warfare. - Democracy and imperial naval power. - Military participation undermined political participation - Allowed Athens to sustain empire o Generated considerable wealth around Athens o Athens was uniquely adapted at the projection of power. - Pericles had a strategy: o Athens would be defensive, transforming into the city island. o Engage in war of attrition to pick off Sparta’s Allies. o Terrible consequence o All people trapped, plague broke out. o Pericles died too along with 20% of the population. o Athenians stuck to their plan o Went in Athens’ favor. - 429: Battle of naupactus o Defeated ships (Athens defeated) o Superiority of ships, boldness of military demand. o Out-fought pelopnysian fleet - 428/7 Mytilene o Athens blockaded city - In 425: Pylos o Surprise landing o Within Spartan territory o Defeating hoplites in Sparta on land. o Capturing 120 citizen soldiers of Sparta o Soldiers would have rather died - War rages on. - Entire greek war - Relatively safe - War between Allies - Each side looked for total defeat of the other. - Rules of war were increasingly abandoned. - The phebans? Convinced the Spartans to destroy Plataea- kill men and sell women/children. - Corcyra o Athens support rebellion against oligarchy o Massacre - Tens of thousands of greeks were killed, cities wiped out. - Stresses of total war destroyed fabric - All the norms no longer applied. - Greatest war on the Greeks, inflicting calamity - Creativity- Socrates, Euripides - Brasidas Northern campaign o Rebellion for Athens. o In 491 reached a treaty o Amphibpolis did not want to be allies, and the agreement fell apart o Sparta wanted Pilos back, o Neither side declared peace to be breached. o They were at a cold war with one and other. - In 415, Alcibiades and Athens; rash Sicilian expedition: 415-413 o Took advantage of local dispute to take entire island of Sicilly o Very big risk- not related to conflict. o Tensions are great o Athens decides to launch another war. o Athens wanted all of it- Turned out to be a disaster.  Ciricuse was a problem/new challenge  They were like Athens: Imperialistic naval democracy. • Became naval over time.  Proved a match o Gylippus- Resourceful and risk taking. o Tens of thousands of Athenians were killed or worked to death in slavery o Wave of revolts o Decelea  Shut in the city, supported on grain. o Lysander  Ruthless leader  Aimed at the north.  The Persians dealt with the greeks using their wealth. Took advantage of rivalry.  Sparta got gold from Persia for what they lost and built fleet. - 411 o Elite anti-democratic Spartans overthrough democratic and started oligarchy o Athenians were able to summon energy to survive th February 10  2014 - Resource-rich but weakly centralized Argead kingdom of Macedonia - 359: Philip II becomes king - Philip unifies Macedonia under strong royal rule and reorganizes army. - 357-338: Macedonia expansion: Chaleidice, Thessaly then all Greece as well s Illyria and Thrace - Systematic Military reform: o Baggage train o Macedonian Phalanx (sarissas)  50 foot long pipes  Difficult and heavy- required training.  Dense row of spear points.  Phalanx warfare didn’t work because of the break in formation from the row.  Cavalry is used systematically. o Cavalry o Light armed scounts and Skirmishers o Torsion catapold and siege warfare o 338: Battle of Chaerona: Macedonians vs. Greeks (Theban Sacred Band) o 357-338: Macedonian expansion: Chalcidice. Thessaly, then all Greece, as well as Illyria and Thrace Philip’s domination of Greece - Declare war on Persia in revenge for the Persian war - Why? Identification with the Greeks, unite the Greeks… League of Corinth War with Persia Panhellenism and Macedonian expansionism 336: Philip assassinated - Achievements may fall apart. - Alexander III the great’s troubled succession - Eliminated Rivals - Possible that the mother was responsible for death. - Defeat Thracians and Illyrians - Destruction of Thebes - 334- Declares war on Persia Alexander III - Killed rivals - Killed the city of Phebes. - Declares are on Persia - Darius III (336-330): The Political necessity of shoring up his authority and imperial unity by proving military might - Despite Memnon of Rhodes’ proposal of scorched earth policy, Darius gives Alexander the battle he needs. - Refuse Memnon’s battle - Force him to withdraw from Asia. - Deprive him of supply. - Refusing to meet Alexander in the field, they could use their Navy. o Macedonia did not have a good Navy - Compel Alexander to go back to Greece. - Claimed that Alexander was a descendant of Achilles - Memnon’s Aegean Stratagy - Alexander’s Mediterranian coast counter strategy - Memnon die and Darius Abandons his strategy in favour of direct Military confrontation - Battle of - Alexander conquers Phoenicia and Egypt - Battle of Gaugamela (331) - Darias Assassinated (330) and Bessus declared Artaxerxes V th February 12  2014  - Passage Monday after reading week. - Monday to Sunday- DO NOT DO BEFORE TUTORIAL/LECTURE Alexander… - Invaded the Persian empire - Army of 5000- but first goes to Tory to pay respects to Achilles - Give Memnon’s strategy - Fleet sailing - Alexander had a counter strategy to Memnon. o Take port cities in Mediterranean coast o Block them off from the empire. - Armies met at the battle of Isus - Depriving Navy of ports and defending the fronts. - Egypt accepted Alexander. - Darius would choose the site of battle. - Darius fled to the upper part of the Persian empire. - Darius was assassinated (330) and Bessus declared Artaxerxes V - Put Macedonians in greeks in charge of government - Persepolis burned - Yet the successor of Darius - Alexander burned the palace to the ground. - Burning to the ground showed that he was in charge, but not taking over from them - Vengeance against Persia. - Alexander declared himself as the successor of Darius - Buried Darius respectfully. - Experimenting- Kept Persians in positions. - Installed garrisons to make sure they remained loyal. - Persian resistance dissolved. - Bessus was handed over to him. Alexander gave bessus over to Persian officials to kill for someone who murdered a king. - 330-327: Refuction of Bactria and Sogdiana- marriage to Roxana but Greco- Macedonian governors and colonies. - Married a local princess. - His own army was giving him trouble. - Did not like what they saw of Alexander’s adoption of Persian Tyrants. Greeks and Macedonia was going to vow to the king. Through Proskynesis (Unknown, but form of Tyrany) - Parmenion was assassinated. - Purges of old ranks (330-328) - Alexanders own royal pages tried to assassinate him - Alexander was not ready to turn back. - Replaced troops with Persian troops - Conquest to Indus vally 327-325 o Found a complex of old people. - Alexander is used in the rivalry of local princes. - Last battle/victory is the battle of Hydaspes against porus. - Thousands of his men died- ten years after his first crossing in to Asia. - Planned for invasion of Arabia. - Purge of governors again. - Preferred Crucification instead of stoning. - Alexander was trying to incorporate new rule. - He took two daughters of Persian kings as brides. - Took final step to divine kingship after death of his childhood friend Hepheastion. o Devistation o Ordered horses shaved and ban of music o Made him a semi-divine hero o Divine honors to himself. - Created Greco-Persian state. - Never return to Greece th February 24  2014 - Death of alexander 323 at Babylon is the end of the previous period and the introduction of Hellenistic period 323-30 BCE - Wars of successors - By 275: Ptolemaic Egypt (Ptolemy I), Seleucid Asia (selecus !), antigonid, Macedon, (Antigonus) - Alexanders son still in the womb at his fathers death so he could not succeed him. - Did not want to share power, but punish. - Abandonment by successors of Alexander’s experiments in cultural hybridization in favour of colonial rule - Dependence on and use by the kings of greek soldiers and colonists - Extraction of products of indigenous peasantly - Greek Culture as the exclusive possession of colonial rulers. - - The colonists provided military strength and the ability to gain control of the indigenous population. - The new helenistic kings took over the econoy - This extraction was to pay for their armies - Helenistic world constantly fighting. - Compared to the European empires- The kings and greeks would regard greekness as the superior culture. - If greekness was superior- colonists were interested in maintaining superiorirty. - Greeks wanted to keep it to themselves away from indigiounous population. - Ind. People kept as peasants. - Greekness was limited to Greeks. - Greek clothes, greek ways- if you did these then you would move up - Allowing this to a few member into a small group of elite. o Others not allowed.  Barred from the gym, citizenship etc. • Gym was also the greek school room. - Seleucid Israel o Tensions between elite Hellenized Jews and Traditionalists o Becoming helenistic was a betrayal and came between God. - 168/7: Antiochus IV bans Jewish Sacrificed, circumcision, Sabbaths, feasts o Felt as thought it abandoned Jewish tradition o Seleucid king put rebellion down and determined to supress this ‘troublesome religion’  Outlawed all of the above. o - 167-160: Revolt of the Maccabees (hasmoneans) o Revolt raged until 160 o Ending in compromise. o They accepted the Seleucids o BUT they were allowed to ruled themselves. o Maccabees became kings. o Jewish belief there is only one true God and the gods of other people are false gods. - Tolerance and openness of polytheism (eg. Isis-Aphrodite) o Religion was the few thing that brough ind. And Greeks got together. o Mizing - In Religion, Hellenistic kings wore a native rather than only Greek Face. - Worshipped Isis as the same as Aphrodite. Became one in the same - Religion was one sphere in which the helenistic kings did not prevent them from at the same time to reaching out to indigenous culture. - Kings’ partronage of native religion, temples and priests - Drawing the priestly elite into colonial rule. - Threatened priests. Rosetta Stone - Tri-lingual stone - Helped learn the previous three language. - Only encouraged greek learning - Ptolemaic Alexandria o Pharos Lighthouse o Museum (Muses) o Library - Cultural Capital of a Greek World. - Royal Rule and Citizen states Old Greece: Struggle between Macedonian Hegemony and Greek Automony o Struggled against the kings hegemonic ideals o The great polis could not muster resources in their own right in a world with great imperial systems o Dwindled in political significance o Sparta became museum city as well as Athens (University town) th Feb. 26  2014 - In Egypt and near east, cities and states began to fall in the bronze age. - Archaic period (c.750-480) formation of citystates off centralized Italy - Etruria, Latium, Campania - City-state: designates scale not kind of political organization o Small states with one urban center o Systems of government were very different. - From c. 750 differention in burial o More fancy graves o Arms and armor. o Honor to warrior groups. - Beginnings urbanism form c. 700: Differentiation in housing in towns. - State-formation: From c. 600 public temples; also city fortifications. - Italian states: Not Greek citizen-states but aristocracies or monarchies o Governed on Aristocracies. - Rival city-states but broader regional identities: Etruscans, Latins - South: Greek colonial Poleis - Italian script from Greek. - Greeks populating ciccilly - Italian city states not Greek citizen-states but aristocracies or monarchies. - Rival C-S but boarder regional identities: Etruscans, latins - Script evolved into eachother. - South: Greek colonial poleis - C8th villages of roman hills coming together - Forum romanum o Turned into religious center (roman forum) o Put public buildings o Raise temple of: - By c. 600: Temple Jupiter Optimus Maximus on Capitoline o Greatest - Monarchy: Rex - C. 625: Regina (together with temple of vesta and domus publica o The king’s building o Part of complex of buildings o Aristocratic council - C. 600: Curia Hostilia for King’s artistocratic council - c. 500: Moncarchy replaced by aristocratic republic - twelve tables - republican magistrates: 2 conculs, praetor (242: 2 Praetors, 4 aediles, quaestors) - old aristocratic council becomes senate of 300 former magistrates (C4th and C3rd: Growing power) - Popular assemblies: elected (aristocratic) Magistrates, issued decrees and laws sat as juries but no powers to initiate or amend proposals - Voting in centuriate assembly by wealth class. - No one individual held office o Two holders. (consuls)  Lead rome’s armies o Praetor  Government administration  Judicial powers.  Doubled to two in 242 o 4 aediles  Maintainence of streets and temples o Quaestors  Administrators of public funds. - This set of magistraits did not form a co-hearent government. o Individually separately elected. o No one told anyone what to do. - Senate had more and more individual authority - Matters of religion, public finances etc. o Determine military assignments. - Yes or no to what magistraits proposed. - Centuriate assembly was elitist. o Voted according to wealth classes. Not one man one vote. Poorest citizens votes worth the same as smaller but more wealthy group. - Only those out of the patricial lineages with plebeians could hold office. - C.5 + 4 struggle of the orders . - Concessions to the plebs tribunes of the plebs (sacrocanct then veto); then able to stand for regular office. - Physical bodies- if their body was done harm, the person would have to go through punishment for the Gods. rd March 3  2014 - Roman Mass elite shaerd a common interest in war and expansion - First samnite war (343-341) - Latin war (341-338) - Rome was warlike city state - Chief office of console was to wage war as commanders of romes armies - Successful aristo. Revolved around military success. - Ordinary citizens were warriors. - Was a militia- serve city’s army for a couple months. - Ordinary citizen soldiers o Elite looked for glory, status and office. o Ordinary citizens gained economically and materially. o One of the driving engines was this common interest that the elite shed
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