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Lecture 31

CLASSICS 2K03 Lecture 31: Roman Dress & Fashion

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Roman Dress& Fashion Wednesday, March 29, 2017 4:24 PM • Picture: Recreation of the Vestal Virgin hairstyle by Janet Stephens • Sine crenes hairstylealluded to chastity ofthese Vestal Virgins • Consistedofsix braids TopicsofDiscussion • Dressoffreeborn children:the toga praetexta • ComingofageceremonyforRomanboys:Assumingthe toga virilis (i.e. the toga ofmanhood) • The dress of Roman women TogaPraetexta • Whitetogawith'purple'border • Oneof theoldestgarments • Roman purple was more of a garne -ted color • (Well into Republican & Imperial Periods) Magistrates & religious figures wore thisgarment- Unitedintheirassociationwiththesacredworld • Pliny the Elder claimed Rome's third king adopted this look from the Etruscans • Garmentwornbyfreeborn Romaboys&girls • Restrictions placed on the behavior of adults in the presence of children wearingthe toga praetexta • Focus on sexual morality: A freeborn Roman child was not to be sexualized in anyway • Cicero'sVerrine Orations:RebukestheSiciliangovernor,GaiusVerres • Brought hisyoung son to Sicily & caused him to be exposed to inappropriate sexual behavior • 'Youstationedyourson,cladinhistogapraetexta,amongwomenofthissort [i.e. those who willinglymet with othermen without theirhusbands],so that at his age,which is most particularlyhazardous& dangerous,thelifeofhis father should offer examples of vicious living.' ○ Son at ageconsidered attractiveto both Roman men & wome- nRecall concept of ideal Greek youth (of age-14 years old)- Peak stages of desirability&vulnerability(beingnotquiteanadult,butnotachild) should offer examples of vicious living.' ○ Son at ageconsidered attractiveto both Roman men & wome- nRecall concept ofideal Greek youth (ofages -14 years old)- Peak stages of desirability&vulnerability(beingnotquiteanadult,butnotachild) TogaPraetexta & Pudicitia • Pudicitia(modesty/chastity): Proper sexual employment of one's body • Reinforced the nonsexual status of a Roman child • Expressions ofsexualitydiffered greatly for adultRomanmales&females • Romanmatrona could only havesex with herhusband, whilea Roman man could engagein sex with his wife & anyonewho wasn't a Roman citizen Stuprum • If a freeborn adult male committed sexual assault onaatrona oradult Roman male, he violated the citize'sudicitia & committed stuprum • Stuprum: A crime & a disgraceful act that could be committed only on freeborn Romans • Engaginginanyconductwitha Romanchild otherthanpropersexual employment of the body (complete & strict chastity) was consistuprum • Included physical & verbal assault • Roman verb form ofpraetexta isused to describe "protecting"as it warns otherstorefrain fromsacrilegiousactsaroundthewearer TogaPraetexta • Toga Praetextawasa sign of free birth & free condition • Protected child against assault • Proclaimed that the wearer was inviolable & safeguarded the child from religious pollution Coming of Age Ceremony • Uniquetoboysoffreeborn status • A distinct celebration apart from mar
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