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Lecture 34

CLASSICS 2K03 Lecture 34: Roman Funerary Commemoration
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Department
Classics
Course
CLASSICS 2K03
Professor
Dr.Scarfo
Semester
Winter

Description
Roman FuneraryCommemoration Wednesday, April 5, 2017 4:24 PM • Place: The Pyramid of C. Cestius Epulo • c. 18-12 B.C. ○ Duringreign ofAugustus • Rome • Exampleofmonumentaltombbuiltwithconcrete&lined withmarble • ~36.4m in height • Inscriptions on east & west si-sReveal that deceased was son of Lucius & belonged to a certainvotingtribe - He was a Tribune of the Plebs, one of seven state priests who organized banquets in honor of Jupiter • Took 330 daysto build thismonument (according to inscription) • Possible that Cestius served in Nubia because pyramidal styles were popular in thisprovince • Sourceof inspiration forromantic poesLocatedneartheprotestantcemetery - Final resting place of English romantic poet John Keats TopicsofDiscussion • Importance of funerary commemoration to the Romans • Epitaphs • Commemorationofthepoor • Otherforms ofcommemoration: columbaria,stelae, funerary altars, sarcophagi, & monumental tombs FuneraryCommemoration • Rome was a commemorative culture • Excludinginfantswho died under40days,itwasmandatorythat burial/cremationoccurred outsidethecitywalls(to preventreligious pollution) - Regulation codified in the Twelve Tables • Monuments lined the streets that led into the city • Place: Necropolis outside the Porta Nocera of Pompeii • Permanence of these monuments enabled memory of deceased to be preserved in dignified manner FuneraryCommemoration • Place: Necropolis outside the Porta Nocera of Pompeii • Permanence of these monuments enabled memory of deceased to be preserved in dignified manner FuneraryCommemoration • Widerangeofmonuments:Varietyofdifferent socialstratarepresented • Desiretoconveyamessagetothepublic - Enabled thememoryofthedeceased tobepreserved in a dignifiedmanner • OccurredthroughouttheEmpire,notjustRome • Majority of monuments come from the no -lite • Few monuments found that can be attributed to those of Senatorial & Equestrianorders • Material evidence from Western provinces & parts of Eastern Empire, indicate thatadoptionofpracticeoccursinthese areas ○ DemonstratesRomanizationasthesemonumentscametobeofgreat valueoutsidethecityof Rome FuneraryCommemoration&the RomanFamily • Commemorationofimmediatefamilymembersarethemostcommon • Allowed familiesto express emotional bonds& relationships • Conveyedmessagesthroughinscription&sculpture • Testament to thesuccess ofthe parentswho were ableto continuetheirlineage • Sentimentsconveyed through monument'sinscription & accompanying imagery- Preserved the name of the deceased & the dedicator & perhaps other family member-sEnsured publicacknowledgementofdeceased &the family - Entiremonumentserved to conveythe familyasa whole FuneraryCommemoration&Self -Promotion • Overcomedeathbyachievingalastingmemorial • Self-promotion:Achievementsofthedeceased are at theforefront ofsome monuments- Crucialpartoftheiridentity • Whateverhelpedtodefineyouinlife, Romanswantedestablishedontheir monuments • Permanent stone monument (that seemingly defied time) maintained a legacy • Place: Two dining couches lining entryway to tomb to allow for living to dine with thedeceased FuneraryInscriptions • Recorded names, family histories, social rank, ethnic origin, careers, & personal tragedies with thedeceased FuneraryInscriptions • Recorded names, family histories, social rank, ethnic origin, careers, & personal tragedies • Somechosen while alive, others by friends & family • Preserved aspects that were considered important by the deceased • Demonstratehowtheywantedtoberemembered FuneraryInscriptions • 'To theSpirits ofthe Dead.[Astandard beginning,alongwith 'Herelies…] Minicia Marcella, the daughter of Fundanus. She lived 12 years, 11 months, & 7 days.' ○ Father mentione- Likelypaidforthemonument ○ If age at death present, it is usually broken down into years, months, days, &perhaps h
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