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Lecture 30

CLASSICS 2K03 Lecture 30: Gladiators & Spectacle
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Department
Classics
Course
CLASSICS 2K03
Professor
Dr.Scarfo
Semester
Winter

Description
Gladiators& Spectacle Monday, March 27, 2017 4:29 PM RomanGames • Ludi Public games ○ ○ Usuallypartofreligiousfestival ○ Also performed for special occasions • Munera ○ Paid for by private individuals ○ Notofficiallyscheduled,unlike ludiinitially- Thisofcourse laterchanged ○ Originallypartoffunerary events for importantindividuals • Romans were observers & not participants in most instances ○ Performers often slaves as acts were inappropriate for proper civilians Events • Venationes('Beast Hunts') ○ Pairs of animals fighting each other or trained men fighting animals (which were exotic in nature from Africa/Middle East) ○ Reassuring power of Rome ○ Venatores('Hunters') ○ Bestiarii('Beast men') • Damnatioadbestias ('Damnationto Beasts') ○ May refer to condemned men who were left to be hunted by the animals ○ Beast man goaded animal intoattack These were often executionswhereby criminalswere thrown in with no ○ armororwere placedingrandproductionsthatreenactedgrand tragedies/deathsofheroes • Silvae('Forests') ○ Doneinconjunctionwiththeatricexecutionsorforatmosphere ○ Meant to convey beauty of nature • Naumachiae ('Sea battles') ○ At Tiber River nearby orartificial lakes constructed ○ Channelsbeneathcoliseummayhaveallowedfloodingofamphitheater for these mock battles • Naumachiae ('Sea battles') ○ At Tiber River nearby orartificial lakes constructed ○ Channelsbeneathcoliseummayhaveallowedfloodingofamphitheater for these mock battles CircusMaximus • Chariotraceswereputonmorefrequentlythangladiatorycombat • Largest&mostwell -known circus • A lot ofwritten record & such that makesup for thedebilitated natureofthe structure • ~200-250 thousand people(capacity) • Circuseswereco -ed ○ Womenexpectedtositseparatelyatthebackoftheamphitheater ChariotRacing • Factions - Greens,Blues,Reds,&Whites • Dominusfactionis ('Master of the Faction') ○ Rented out materials to those who put on the race for the day (i.e. horses, staff, etc.) • Mappa(the starting flag) • Race consisted of seven laps around central barrier • Spina/euripus(the central barrier) • Naufragia ('shipwreck') ○ A crash of thechariot dueto a poorturn RacingStars • Charioteerscouldwinenormoussumsofmoney(~30,000sestertius) • Support offactionswasthemain concern (rather than individual stars) Pliny, NaturalHistory 7. 186 • 'Itisfoundintheofficial recordsthatatthefuneralofFelix thecharioteerof theReds oneofhis backers threwhimself uponthepyre - a pitifulstory - & the opposingbackerstriedtoprevent thisscore totherecord ofaprofessionalby asserting thatthemanhadfaintedowingtothequantityofscents!' Herodian4. 6. 4 • 'Finally,theemperordidsomethingthathadneverbeendonebefore; whilehe waswatchinga chariot race,thecrowd insulted the charioteerhe favoured. Believing himself to havebeen humiliated, heordered thesoldiers to attack the crowd & lead off & kill thoseshouting insultsat hisdriver.' Herodian4. 6. 4 • 'Finally,theemperordidsomethingthathadneverbeendonebefore; whilehe waswatchinga chariot race,thecrowd insulted the charioteerhe favoured. Believing himself to havebeen humiliated, heordered thesoldiers to attack the crowd & lead off & kill thoseshouting insultsat hisdriver.' Curse Tablets • Short messages were inscribed & buried on thetrack to bring ill will to charioteers &/ortheirhorses Colosseum(i.e. FlavianAmphitheater) • Roman amphitheater almost exclusively Roman (rather than based on a Greek counterpart) • Free-standing (rather than built into hill) • Ovalinshape • Literally&figurativelyattheheartofRome FlavianAmphitheater • Terms: ○ Arena § Main stage ○ Hypogeum(underground level) § Evidenceof hydraulicssystems § Pulleys to raise animals onto stage ○ Vomitorium(entry/exit passages) ○ Velarium(awning) § Sheet/canopy that protected from sun § Couldalsomakeabreeze Cross-SectionofSeating • Podium: Best seats at podium level reserved for senatori-s ouldbring cushions • Maenianum Primum : Non-senatorial noblsImportant officials • Maenianium Secundum Imum : Wealthy citizens & soldiers • Maenianum Secundum Summum : Urban poor & foreigners • Maenianum Sec
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