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Main Theoretical Perspectives .docx

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Dan Popowich

Main Theoretical Perspectives Sept 20/12 Medical Ecology - Emphasizes the role of biological & behavioural adaptations. Ex. Alland Jr 1970 – Plasmodium falciparum the Mano & Sickle Cell Pliocene 5-2.5 Million years ago Pleistocene 2.5-0.20 Million years ago Holocene 0.2 Million years ago – Present Holocene  Cultivation –Cut down forest slash and burn shifting to agriculture. Engage in Swidden & Milpa. Use land for agriculture and work the land until it can’t grow anything. Move onto the next area and wait for vegetation in old area to begin to grow. Burn new growing vegetation until it’s ash in the soil. This lifestyle causes problems by allowing water to lay stagnant and allowing mosquitoes to feed on the population. Malaria emerges and sickle cell adaptation emerges to fight Malaria. “Health is a measure of biological & behavioural adaptations” –Singer & Baer, 2003/2007 Interpretive Theory - As a result of out culture, we respond to sickness in different ways. Ex. Some people experience more pain, others less. “Disease is not an entity: it is an explanatory model” – Kleinman, 1980 We all learn to see reality in different ways & respond to sets of symbols – Good, 1994 Goffman: Dramaturgy. Individual actors perform according to a cultural script. The body is the site for experiencing & conveying messages about suffering. - Within this interpretive system disease is ascribed meaning. Does sickness involve performance? -Parsons [Sick Role]  Functionalist Ex. Marriage, Prostitution, etcetera Sickness is dysfunctional  It prevents us from preforming our normal roles in society. Core Nations: First embraced capitalism (England, France, Holland & Germany) Periphery: Sold cash crops to core nations (E. Europe) Semiperiphery: Grew dependent upon the core nations (Countries around the Mediterranean) External Area: Left out of capitalism & had few connections with the core nations (Africa & Asia) Capitalism is the room of many problems because it promotes inequality. There is something inherently wrong with this we are all equal and should receive the same things. Is there a relationship between health & wellness  Yes. The lowest is in Africa which is high in periphery. CMA  Critical Medical Anthropology - Anthropology examines the differences in power - Power shapes pattern of medical care & health status – Singer & Baer, 2007 p.33 Illness & The Body in Crosscultural Perspectives What is health? Conceptions of health Ex. James Bay Cree Canada: Cree – health is a relationship between socioeconomic and natural environments. Animism– everything is alive & connected at a moral level. Hunting involves relationships with animals. Good people (innumarik) get to eat animals. The animal “allows” them to kill it – they don’t kill it on their own. Definitions of health vary wildly & are impacted by time, experience & culture. Is there any common theme between a variety of definitions – productivity What is health? Health is… 1. Functional 2. Experimental - Health is a matter of what we feel and how we preform Ex. Sociology & the sick role (functions & dysfunction) -Health is defined in terms of functionality not just the self. -Definition is rooted i
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