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ethno medicine.docx

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Dan Popowich

Ethno Medicine October 4 th Najar/Bhut cause illness. Bhut  Possession Najar  Evil Eye Ethno Medicine The study of: 1. How well being & suffering is experienced. 2. How illness is addressed. 3. How illness is contextualized around the world. Ex  The Deity Shapona. The Yoruba’s of Nigeria believed that if they offended the goddess Shapona she would give them smallpox. Categories of ethno medicine? Orthodox - Biomedicine - Biological - Conventional medicine Heterodox - Folk healers - Traditional healers such as shamans, curandero’s, isangorra’s & body workers. Folk Medicine “Traditional” societies emphasize magic & religion as a dominant aspect of their healing. – Ackerknecht, 1978 Their medical system is efficacious. Folk healing confronts many issues of wellbeing in society. Magic – the attempt to address worldly phenomena through supernatural brings. Witchcraft & Sorcery are different things. In witchcraft they believe that the power comes from within; whereas, in sorcery manipulates objects. How did ethno medical systems emerge? Fabrega – Evolutionary model of disease  Presence of health behaviour among non-human animals  Neanderthals (125-25,000 BCE)  Shandar caves trauma – paralyzed on ones side of body primary healthcare lived to 40.  Homo sapiens sapiens foraging (shaman emerges) !Kung – boil energy (num)/kia Theories of disease Deities – a god that is responsible for creation or in part – become angered when laws are broken – sickness is a result of gods anger/broken law Ancestral spirits - dead people often play a role in human affairs - offending ancestors many results in sickness Imical ghosts (ex. Zar & Shatani possession in Africa) - Supernatural beings affect the lives of the living - May be envious, disruptive or attracted to immortality Human beings - People who manipulate supernatural forces with magic or society - Anger, jealousy, or hatred causes people to make others sick. Zar (female)– polygamy women need equal treatment ‘cures’ them Shatani (male)- low social economic status sayance  soul says it wants regular grains, meat, butter etc (welfare management) Medical Ecology Fabrega (1997) - Animals have basic sickness & healing (SH) responses. - SH responses are basic behaviours selected for - These SH adaptations were refined by early hominids Disease Theory System Foster & Anderson (1978) a) Personalistic causes – Agen
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