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CMST 1A03 (355)
Lecture 6

CMST 1A03 Lecture 6: CMST exam review

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McMaster University
Communication Studies
Terry Flynn

CMST exam review ● 88.5% of canadians use the internet ● Growing at a rate of 5.9% per year Chpt 9 ● Media economics​: ensuring that the communications needs & desires of society are met through a system that remains accessible & affordable, while also making sure producers & distributors are compensated ● 4 group's served by the media: (they all participate in the economy) 1) Owners​: ranges from corporations to individuals with their own website. Motivated by profit or public service/ social purpose 2) Audience's​: consumers (were passive, but are much more active). 3) Advertisers​: promote goods & services to sell, & project a kind of brand identification. They buy access to media audiences 4) Workers​: star directors/actors to those who earn money in the film industry (ex- electrician, etc.) Some are paid royalties, others are paid hourly, etc. 5) Governments: adopt laws + guidelines that compel media orgs to serve needs + wants. ● Resources fall into 5 categories 1) Time 2) Labour: human resources 3) Technology: equipment 4) Capital: money 5) Material resources: paper, plastic, metals, chemicals, etc. (electronic publishing is best) ● Media markets serve 2 markets at the same time: audience, & advertising market ● Economists argue that if books, etc can't survive in the market then they don't deserve to ● Economism​: the perception of cultural production as commercial enterprise ● Market externalities​: costs and benefits of economic activity that aren't accounted for (they're external to) the immediate economic transaction between buyer + seller ○ Externalities can be positive ● Market economy limitations ○ Market failure​: when the market doesn't or can't serve the cultural needs of society ○ Markets usually don't recognize the longevity of cultural products (ex- van gogh) ○ Markets may fail to accommodate infant industries ● Myth of meritocracy​: consumers discriminate cultural products on the basis of conceptions of worth ● The public has “limitless variability of tastes” ● Capitalism​: economic system based on exchange relations, private ownership, + the clear separation of capital + labour ● No media industry in canada is governed exclusively by free market economics ● Our mass media's organized as a mix of public + private enterprise ○ Newspaper publishing comes closest to an exclusively private enterprise ■ “Untouchable”- closely associated with historical struggle for freedom of the press ● Kent commission proposed a canada newspaper act ● Radio- 4 minutes of national advertising/ hour ● All radio stations are regulated by the CRTC ● The profits of private broadcasters go to shareholders, not to the public ● Public + private tv in canada's regulated ● Film industry is special because it has public + private production house's (internet counts too) ● “Natural monopoly”- telephone service (ottawa) ● Cyberspace is a medium of exchange for communication ● Public ownership​: providing communication as some kind of public service based on public goals ○ Seeks cultural development, job creation, industrial development, etc. ○ Address audience's as citizens rather than consumers ○ Asserts citizens rights to communicate + to be informed ○ Removes the element of choice from our decisions about media consumption + can cause resentment for those who have to pay for services through taxes, but never use the services ○ Grants a tremendous amount of responsibility + power to gov’s ○ Creates an opportunity for political interference ● Private ownership​: providing communication for profit ○ Assumes 2 forms- owned by ind. Or a big group of shareholders ○ Serve only those who are in their target market ○ Chain ownership​: ​horizontal integration​ of companies in the same business occupying dif markets ○ Vertical integration​: concentration of firms w/ a specific business that's involved in every aspect ■ Minimizes competition, ensures itself on resource supplies + sales markets ○ Smythe- Mass media content is a bribe to recruit potential members + maintain their loyal attention ○ Concerns ■ Cultural productions as commercial enterprise ■ Increasing convergence ■ Greater chance for conflict ■ Corporate concentrations reduced our sources of info ● Moves to democratize the media: ○ Media reform​- diversify existing orgs ○ Alternative media​- establish new outlets Chpt 10 ● “Content is king” ● Journalism provides the public with factual info + informed commentary about current events by addressing basic questions (5 w’s + how) ● Journalism is a practise + an institution ● Journalism​: product of the interactions among all info sources & news providers & consumers ● 7 determinants of newsworthiness 1) Timeliness 2) Impact 3) Prominence 4) Proximity 5) Conflict 6) Peculiarity 7) Currency ● Pipeline model- one way flow ● Network model- interactive ○ Some theorists see journalists + news editors as gatekeepers (select what stories to cover) ● Gatekeeping ignores how a story is covered, how it's played, etc. ● Each news org has it's own “brand”, that determines the stories to publish + how to show them ● News orgs are limited by time + resources in what news they can present ● News orgs have political biases that determine how they react to news stories ● Metaphor of the ​frame-​ journalists frame reality through words, images, sounds + story themes ○ Deciding what stores + images to present + what to leave out of the frame ○ May be considered problematic ○ Factors: ideals that distinguish it, language, sociopolitical culture ○ There are limits to what a news organization can properly present as news ○ News hole​: space or time available ● Ideals of journalism ○ Truth seeking is the foundation for freedom of the press ○ Serving democracy - freedom of the press (push boundaries + demand more info) ○ 3 confusions (gingras) ■ doesn't allow for a true dialogue between civil society + state ■ Doesn't speak to the quality of media messages ■ Communication doesn't guarantee harmony or consensus ○ Media's caught in a conflict between commercial interests + political responsibilities ○ News media as the 4th estate ○ Objectivity​: being fair/neutral ■ Can be positivist or critical ● News story structure ○ Beginning-​ most of the W’s ○ Body-​ interesting facts/details ○ Bottom-​ least important info ● Journalism informs + is informed by the society + culture it exists in ○ Tied to the economy by news media + corporate ownership ○ Journalism describes societies/ culture's we live in + make judgements about our values, beliefs + behaviours ● Journalism's role in public sphere ○ News media acts as a source of info on events + a forum to give opinions ● Journalism is seen as a profession, but it has no formal training ● Lack of diversity= biased reports + lack of coverage for minority groups/women ● Freedom of expression + freedom of the press are protected under ​section 2​ of the canadian charter of rights + freedoms ● Journalists are seen as members/ reps of the public, by the court + have no special rights ● Universal declaration of human rights protects journalists + provides policy at an international level ● Libel law's protect individual's + companies against “false + damaging statements” ○ Responsibility for libel extends beyond reporters to news publishers + orgs ○ Conflict bet private vs public interest is usually the issue for libel cases ● Libel chill ○ Effect the threat of libel action can have on journalists reporting on powerful people or orgs ● Onus of defence is on the journalist ● Courts can prevent journalists from reporting on ongoing cases or interfering with the process by having bans, etc. ● News orgs have their own biases + ideologies ● New media ecology includes social networking sites as research resources + circulation sites ● The future of journalism will be digital + will include many more “born digital” news providers ● Speed can have a - impact on journalism when reporters need to keep websites current, preventing proper fact checking ● Smaller news staffs can confine reporters to their desks, shrinking the geographical reach of their reporting Chpt 11 ● Globalization​: processes by which social, cultural, political + economic relations extend further than ever before with more frequency, immediacy + facility ● Roles of media in the globalization process 1) Allowing us to connect 2) Allowing centralized administration 3) Situating us within the world 4) A globalized industry in + of itself ● Communication media reduce the meaning of physical distance, allowing us to expand our relationship, political, + economic networks ● Mass media provide us with a sense of place + identity ● Media have become a central constituent of globalization in what is called the info age, or network society ● Commodification = conflict between public + corporate interests ● Consumers of media also become producers aka ​prosumers ● Global info trade ○ International cultural exchange has traditionally been uneven, with a small number of info sources serving many ○ ^ = media imperialism (exploitation of global media markets to get influence + control) ● Use of digital platforms has only enhance their ability to penetrate global markets ● Large transnational media companies are interested in the world's most affluent audience ● Digital tech allows us to access a more commercial + indep. produced cultural products + services ● New media ecology ○ Requires a cultural level to complement its global infrastructure ● Network society- interconnected ● Internet use is highly concentrated within a network of “metropolitan nodes” ● Spatialization​: the process of overcoming the limitations of space + time ○ Space has become transformed, changing the relationships betw. people, goods + messages ○ Ex- hollywood which clusters companies + workers devoted to film + tv production ● NWICO​: new world info and communication order ○ Hamelink suggests that 2 features of international com. emerged in last half of 20th century ■ Expansion of the global communication system ■ Tensions in the system across both E-W and N-S axes ○ International debate regarding communications 1) Dominant nations can exploit their power, forcing their culture + ideologies onto less dominant states 2) Economies of scale reinforce the dominance of more powerful nations 3) Some international corporations have used their power to exploit markets rather than to serve needs ○ UNESCO MacBride commission ■ Advocated for “free, open, + balanced comm.” ■ Recognized the conflict bet the commercialization + democratization of com ■ Criticized inequalities in tech capacities bet nations, holding that the right to communicate is fundamental to democracy ● UNESCO adopted principles of NWICO, but they were opposed by western states, seeking liberalized global trade ● WTO + NAFTA operate only on market forces ● Gov’s limited power to regulate media ● WSIS​: world summit on the info society ○ info= freedom, equality, peace, democracy ○ Aims to eliminate inequality + digital divide ○ Expresses desire to make an indo society with = access for all ● The “social imaginary” ○ Ways people imagine their social existence, the expectations + images that underlie these expectations ● Appadurai ○ Globalization comprises of distinct processes rather than a coherent system ○ Proposes 5 “scapes” that create “disjunctures” between economics, culture + politics ■ Ethnoscapes, Technoscapes, Finanscapes, Mediascapes, Ideoscapes ● Role of place in defining culture
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