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Introduction to Communications.docx

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Communication Studies
Philip Savage

5/6/2013 2:53:00 PM Introduction to Communications  definition: o the process of human beings responding to the symbolic behaviour of others.  Skills are complex notions  communication is a relational act o a computer can exchange information with another computer, but it‘s the on-going relations among people that is cultural and meaningful  communication is symbolic o creates a paradox  communication is interdisciplinary  types of communication o intrapersonal  inner and private speech  constructive listening  debate within ourselves o dyadic-in pairs  a philosopher would call it interpersonal  talking it through o small groups  communication through a small group  every individual gets a chance to speak  work environments  tendency to break off o public communication  first form of large communication  it was a sign of civilization o mass communication  messages are spread on a vast scale  usually through print or media  sponsored by a big corporation, or government o functions of communications  physical needs  identity  creating ourselves by taking different things  a way we project ourselves  social needs  we want to experience pleasure, we want to have fun  ones of the ways to have fun we are communicating or talking  we love to escape the though reality  some people like control  we do actually need to connect  practical needs  quick communication to help us practically survive  How were your communication needs met today? (physical/social/identity/practical) Models of communication  linear Model o Sender > Channel > Receiver o [Encoding] [Decoding] \/ {Source of potential ―Noise‖} o {possibility of ―feedback‖} o You have a process where someone sends a message and them someone will receive it o The concern with noise (comes in the encoding and mostly by the decoding; they imped)  external noise  physiological noise  psychological noise  Transactional Model o Communication is fluid, not static o communication is relational not individual o more than a simple send and receive, constantly transactional o exchange among people o the way you dress, and sit; Communication Competence  wide range of behaviours (ability to choose among them)  skill at performing behaviours  empathy  cognitive complexity  self-monitoring 5/6/2013 2:53:00 PM Innis and McLuhan  The message of media o telephone exercise o why study them? Harold A. Innis, 1895-1952  going back to the bases o ―Bias of Communication‖  symbolic environment Material Environment  the material of communication effect the type of communication and even the way we think (our symbolic universe)  Physical-> way of communicating/thinking/living  ―changes in the mode of communication lie at the heart of social, cultural and economic evolution.‖  Time-binding society  pre-literate, oral and tribal  emphasize continuity (human mind is limited in storage capacity)  oral traditions  conserved knowledge is very practical and religious/magical  less possibility for abstraction  time flows in this society/the present is recurrent  Time-binding media  oral (social links), written (by hand)  less transportable  harder to work with durable  Space-binding societies  defined as societies in which price system has penetrated fully or where the military keeps the peace  secular, materialistic and impersonal socially  time is broken up into chucks that can be valued and priced  Space-binding media  printed media, electronic media  easy to work with  contain a lot of information  easy to transport Minerva‘s Owl  creativity and learning grow as society declines  Minerva‘s owl has flown for many civilizations, eg. Greece (Alexandria)  goddess of wisdom Marshall McLuhan, 1911-1980  born in Edmonton  studies at U of Manitoba (BA & MA) & Cambridge  English literature  converted to Catholicism  always an ―outsider‖- but very sought out by business world  1979 suffered stroke and became aphasic  Theory of media o media extend and amplify one or another of the senses. increasing the relative importance of the sense in the sensorium Hot and Cold Media  Hot media— o extend one‘s senses in a high-definition fashion, that is it paints an explicit sensory picture for us, not obliging us to think or use our imaginations very much  e.g. Print (eyes)/ Radio (ears)  Cool media— o gives little information (and over a wide range od senses). requiring the recipient to fill in the details. This forces us to use imagination, fantasy and to participate in the medium  e.g. oral discussion/TV(tactile)/Internet(?)  Media Analyses o spoken language was very cool medium, requiring participation o writing is a hot medium because it linearize and codifies language o manuscripts (cool/more flexible; it can change) versus print (hot) o legal agreements are hot mediums o electronic media are quite cool o is the ordered world of the literate moving to the creative anarchy of hypertext/internet?- re-tribalization/the tribal village Journal What medium of communication do you use most in your daily life (e.g. television, oral conversations, Facebook)? Now imagine that another medium takes precedence. How would the change in medium effect the kind of messages you share and how you present yourself to others, i.e. your image or personality? To what extent is your medium your message? The medium that I use most often in my daily life is text messaging. This is a result of living away from home, temporarily not having wifi in my current place of residence and the fact that the majority of my friends and family live in another city. Should another medium take its place, the impact upon my life would not actually be too dramatic. With the advent of smart phones and constant access to the internet, whatever new form of communication presents itself will surely be available on my mobile phone the same way I have access to text messaging now. In the context of our last class, this new method of communication may actually become cooler than text messaging by providing visual stimuli in the form of videos or pictures as opposed to plain text. Such methods of communication are in existence and I do frequently use apps such as Snapchat, Instagram and Vine, however the most common avenue that I use is still text messaging. This medium is simply the most convenient and widespread device through which I can communicate, and I suppose that in a way this conveys my message of simplicity and effectiveness over flash and inconsistency. I use texting and oral conversation (mostly over the phone and in person) in my daily life. This is because of work and the fact that I'm usually not near the people I want to talk to constantly. I don't know when this incessant need to always be talking to someone started, probably around the same time MSN went viral I would assume. If another medium took precedence, I don't think that things would change a lot but probably slightly. For example, I think I'd be able to focus on one thing better, and be less scatter brained if I stopped being able to reach people through so many mediums on my phone. That way, I wouldn't feel like texting or checking my email while I'm driving or something. This would probably end up being safer, and allow me to be less anxious all the time worrying about always being in the loop with work, friends, school and family. The medium of communication I use most in my daily life is oral conversation, although I use texting or instant messaging (IM) quite often too and it can be a close second. I believe that oral communication is the most effective medium because the messages comes out with the tone that you want which can indicate the emotion of the speaker. If another medium took precedence, then it would cause a great change. IM for example, it depends on technology and sometimes there would be a delay between responses and possible misinterpretation of the message. On the other hand, texting would allow me to connect with more of my friends than oral communications. The medium that I prefer most is human to human communication with nothing in between. I feel that way because, I can communicate very efficiently. I am trying to text less and setup meetings with friend‘s more. Texting can be very effective in today society because it is one of the fastest ways to communicate. I have noticed over the last couple of years I barely have long phone conversations its either texting or meeting up. I just wish people would meet up more and hang out rather than texting. There are so many different forms of mediums it is crazy. I try not to get caught up in all because it mostly makes me feel isolated. I feel humans were created to interact directly with each other. The way I go about using mediums is if I cannot met you face to face physically and go out to a party or bowling then I will call you and have a phone conversation if you are busy I will text you and hopefully work something out so we can meet, go out for coffee or something. I try to use the medium that minimizes usage of technology to my best of ability. Above all, oral communication is my most frequently used medium. Usage of other media (facebook, email, texting, etc.) depends on how much free time I have and whether I have access to these media at the time. I think that if a new medium took precedence, it would change the way we use other types of media. After the invention of computers and phones, the value and purpose of oral communication changed. Inviting someone out face-to-face, or mailing them a handwritten letter-- these actions became more personal and meaningful. If a new medium is introduced, the value of our current media will change. As for changing our images, human beings are naturally changing their message or their image depending on the situation. For example, the way you speak to your boss is usually different than the way you speak to your best friend. This occurs even though you're using the same medium (oral communication) in each situation. Therefore, I think that a new medium would just follow this pattern. We would be presenting the same messages, just adjusting them to be socially appropriate for the new medium (at least, that's what I assume I'd do). In my daily life I would use lots of different mediums of communication. I use face-to-face communication when I'm having a conversation with others or hang out with my friends. I talk with my roomate a lot. If I have the internet and a good mood, I use skype to connect with my family far away in China, (of course I have to remember there's a 12-hour difference from there to here, so I can chat with them on a proper time.) However, if I don't have the internet or a in good mood, and I need to contact them immediately, I would call them using my cell phone. (which would cost a bit more money) I also use my cell phone to contact a very good friend who's in Alberta. If another medium takes precedence, umm such as facebook..I could not contact my family since it's banned in China. If I only use it to contact my friends, my phone would definitely become THE most important property of mine. I would not like that though, because it's a weird way to communicate with people. I would have to stick to the cell phone all day and seeing all those news feed i'm not really interested into. Most importantly, I would not see a lot of people face to face and actually interact with them, this makes me feel like i'm not living in a real world. On facebook I tend to talk things in a simpler way and hardly talk with deep emotion. Also, if there's an important thing need to be solved with me and another person, face-to-face is a more effective way than facebook. For example, if i want to sublet a house in the summer around Mcmaster, I'd make an appointment with the landlord to see the house with my eyes. I would not contact the landlord on facebook and ask for pictures and descriptions of the house. Because I want solid proofs that the house is a nice place to live. Managing at Guess - a fast-paced retail location -requires oral communication as my medium (primarily face-to-face, but also via telephone). With sales goals as a monumental focus, I am always strategizing the optimal ways to manipulate dyadic and small-group communication, in order to maximize peoples' spending habits. Now, imagine having to create that customer experience through mediated communication, such as texting. There are pros and cons to this make- believe scenario: Con: The sincerity of a customer's feedback would be much harder to gauge, since encoded messages obliterate the occurrence of unintentional actions. For example, in face-to-face communication, a customer's facial expressions and body language aid me in determining whether they like the product or not, regardless of what they actually say. Pro: As a sales person, I am constantly putting on a performance for the customer: I have high energy, I'm constantly smiling, and I'm always making "small talk." On the other hand, if communication is solely through texting, our interaction would be much more straightforward, with minimal energy exerted. Regarding communication in everyday life, though, I believe that oral communication should be utilized the most. It's debatable whether or not oral communication is the most effective; however, it is capable of giving us the greatest joy and giving us some of our best memories. 5/6/2013 2:53:00 PM Perception, the self and communication  perception o common perceptual tendencies o situational factors o perception and culture  empathy o perception checking o ability to go beyond our self interest it is at the heart of competency of communication  listening/ imagination- adds value to communication  communication is about meaning  perceiving the self o identity management o impressions Perception  beliefs  messages  image Common perceptual Tendencies  Attributions o being more severe on others  very understanding towards ourselves, but not for others  empathy and trying to understand behaviours o influenced by what‘s most obvious  biological thing  we developed as a species; we are thought to be aware of obvious things  move away from this animal instinct  most intense  we are drawn to repetition; it they have a repetitive aspect to them o clinging to first impressions  first impressions are lasting o similarity of others  notion that we see similar thinks  for example high self esteem think that all people have high self esteem  pattern people through who we are o favour negative impressions  tend to favour negative impressions  used a lot in politics  sets everyone up for failure Situational Factors  relational satisfaction  degree of involvement  past experience  expectations  social roles  knowledge  self-concept Perception and culture  different norms within different cultures Empathy and Perception  Empathy= o the ability to recreate to recreate or take on another person‘s perspective  Dimensions of Empathy o perspective taking o emotional dimensions o concern for welfare Empathy v. Sympathy  sympathy=feeling for them (only) o but you may not take the trouble to put yourself in their place o e.g. social research  participant observation  ―walk a mile in my footsteps‖ Perception Checking  a technique for re-examining behaviours; ask three questions: o how I would describe the action/behaviour as I saw it? o can I provide two different interpretations of the behaviour? o how should I interpret the behaviour? o e.g. ― When you tipped over all those garbage cans [behaviour], I wasn‘t sure if you were trying to threaten David, Ali, Mike and Me [first interpretation], or a bit drunk and possibly in just a bad mood [second interpretation]. Do you remember what was going on and why you did it [request for clarification]?‖ Perceiving the self  communication and the self o identity and self-worth  culture and self  self, personality and communication  self-fulfilling prophecy Myers-briggs test  dichotomies  based on carl jung I want you to follow up on the exercise we started in class by discussing either: 1. A time you presented a public identity that didn't match your private self in a manner that was ethical (i.e. morally allowable). 2. A situation (real or hypothetical) in which you present(ed) a dishonest identity. Also think about an occasion in which a public figure has "played" with her or his identity in the media and whether they "stepped over the line"? 5/6/2013 2:53:00 PM Rhetorical Strategies  Planning o introduction o pre-writing o outlining o drafting o editing  Key Forms o speeches o news releases o Op-ed and Blogs  The Ethics of Persuasion Rhetorical Strategies  Rhetoric o the process of motivating someone, through communication, to change a belief, attitude, or behaviour. o was taught during the aristocratic era o always assumed as empty rhetoric  Persuasion is human and ethical o ―to be persuasive, we must be believable… o To be believable, we must be credible… o To be credible, we must be truthful.‖ o unethical to not be persuasive o persuasion is at the root of rhetoric 1. Introduction.  Your Message, Your Plan  Purpose? o What is the purpose of what I am writing?  Audience? o Who is the audience for what I am writing?  Efficient? o How do I say it without wasting (too much of) their time? 1.Prewriting 2. Outlining 3. Drafting 4. Editing 2. Pre-writing  what is the primary purpose of the document?  how much scope will you cover?  what are the needs of the audience?  what channel is best for this message?  what sort of information do I need to tell the story? And how do I collect it? Purpose Goodwill Information Convey good wishes Request information Promote good will Provide information Explain something Give instructions Clarify your position Persuasion Audience Profile  Most basic rule of rhetoric: o ―Know your audience‖  Audience Analysis o ―the process of assessing the needs and knowledge of readers and listeners and adapting messages accordingly  e.g. radio producers 1. What is the receiver‘s responsibilities and position? 2. What is the receiver‘s attitudes, interests and questions? 3. What is your experience of the receiver? 4. How much does the receiver know about the subject? 5. what is the receivers likely response (neutral, positive or negative)? 6. What words define your relationship with the receiver? 7. is there more than one receiver? 8. Do you need to adapt your message for an international receiver? 9. Does the receiver have particular expectations? GIVE them what they need to help you… (While you limit what you give them to hurt you). Medium  Medium= physical means or channel by which the message is to be conveyed  Richness of channel= degree to which a range of cues can be used to provide information and generate useful feedback other concerns: o speed of channel o cost of channel o need for permanent record o detail of information o importance of message o immediacy of feedback o level of control over message 3. Outlining  outlining (organizing) o the process of arranging information preparatory to writing to achieve clarity and impact 1. Sequential Development eg. Cure for Cancer 2. Chronological Development eg. Decline of AM 3. Cause and effect development 4. problem/options/solution development eg. CRTC License Application  Problem  Options  Solution 4. Drafting  Draft o the preliminary written form of the document o just do it!  Free-writing o method of generating content based on unstructured writing and recording of ideas as they come to mind o Strategies  start early‘  work on a computer (or not)  talk it out  skip around  close the door  take a break 5. Editing  Revising o Process of reviewing and making changes in a draft document- adding, deleting, reorganizing-to transform it into a finished document  Editing o Checking a written draft to ensure it conforms to standards of good English, style and accepted professional writing practices. o Check for:  accuracy  conciseness  completeness  structure and coherence  sentence and paragraph construction  consistency and format  readability, word choice and ethics  grammar, spelling and punctuation  typographical errors o Editing  work from a paper copy  reduce your reading speed or read it out loud  read if from the readers perspective  make several passes over the draft Speeches  Jawaharlal Nehru, 4 August 1947  Nelson Mandela, 20 April 1964  Eamon de Valera, 10 April 1966  Martin Luther King Jr., 3 April 1968 Definition  Oral presentations o an informative or persuasive speech delivered using only notes (and visual aids) to guide a speaker‘s performance  Paradox o Fear Factor v. Career Advancement Preparing a Speech  Made easier by following a few simple rules: o set a clear persuasive purpose o structure the message carefully o use solid evidence o avoid fallacies Audience Strategy  Adapting to your audience by o establishing common ground o organizing your message according to the expected response o neutralizing potential hostility Differs from written communication  no pause or playback (-)  no chance to review or read deeper (-)  delivered for easy comprehension and retention (-)  Allows for real time reaction and feedback (+) Oral ―SIP‖-ping  Simple  Idea  Purpose Audience Analysis (1)  who is your audience? o why are they there? o what do they expect? o what‘s their attitude (resistance?) conflicts? tensions? o what‘s your role/relationship? o are decision-maker‘s present? o how knowledgeable are they? who are you really speaking to and why?  what is the speaking situation? o what is the purpose? underlying concern? o level of formality? o room environment? PA system, sitting, standing, projection? o how much time do you have? o are you the headliner, or part of the show? how are you connected with others‘ presentations? o what happens before and after you? where are you in time and space? Structure  Three Types: o logical structure-  easy to understand why points are made o narrative structure-  story that is memorable and ties it all together o formal structure-  intro/body/conclusion (three-part presentation) Three parts to presentations  the introduction  the body  the conclusion The Intro  Introduction o prepares your audience to understand and makes them listen  Opening remarks should: o arouse interest o identify yourself/credibility o make purpose clear o preview main points  The ―hook‖ (attention getting device) o states an unexpected fact/statistic o raises a question o involves audience with a key visual aid o anchors it with a quote o tells a joke [NOT!] Pair and Share  Best hook in a speech you can remember? The Body:  develops your main theme  developing the argument with: o a balance of context and analysis o evidence-fact, examples, quotes, paraphrases o answers to anticipated questions  organized in o chronology o journalistic questions (5 W‘s and How) o Problem-solution (or s.o.s. –sitch, options, solution) o exclusion of alternatives o causal/comparison/contrast/pro-con o process The Conclusion  helps people remember and take action (sometimes)  concluding remarks should: o restate the main issues o restate the main idea or hook o issue a challenge or call to action (persuasive) o leave something (a question) to think about  thanking/allowing questions Definitions  News release o a pseudo-news story, written in third person, that seeks to demonstrate to an editor or reporter the newsworthiness of a particular person, event, service or product  process o sent alone, by e-mail, fax or snail mail; can also be part of a full press kit, or may be accompanied by a pitch letter 5/6/2013 2:53:00 PM Rhetorical Strategies  rhetoric o the process of motivating someone through communication, to change a belief  News release o a pseudo-news story, written in third person, that seeks to demonstrate to an editor or reporter the newsworthiness of a particular person, event, service or product  Process o sent alone, by e-mail, fax or snail mail; can also be part of a full press kit, or may be accompanied by a pitch letter  Approach o you need to think like a reporter:  get out of your organization-into journalists head. they have a radar for ―puffery, flackery and hyperbole.‖ o reporters want:  real news about your company (not promotional puffery  to deliver a sharp story angle that will be of real interest  information from you in a professional, courteous way Op-ed  essays that appear opposite the editorial page in newspapers serving as an extended letter to the editor o most OpEd‘s run 500-750 words long and while Language  the nature of language o Language is symbolic o meanings are in people, not words o referent/referred o signifier/signified o e.g. ―r-o-s-e‖ refers to a flower (and passionate love?) o language is ―rule-governed‖  phonological rules  e.g. ―My farm can produce produce.‖  semantic rules  e.g. ―Police Being Campaign to Run Down Jaywalkers‖  syntactic rules  e.g. subject-verb-object ―I pat the cat‖ v. ―The cat I pat‖  e.g. ―I‘m not going no party‖  Je ne vais pas au soiree.  Pragmatic rules  e.g. ―Hey buddy, what‘s up?‖  e.g. Honking the horn in Halifax  the power of language o Language shapes attitudes  naming  credibility  status  sexism and racism o Language reflects attitudes  power  affliction(linguistic accommodation)  attraction and interest  responsibility  ―it‖ v. ―I‖ statements  ―you‖ v. ―I‖ statements  ―but statements  questions v. statements  troublesome language (misunderstandings) o equivocal language o relative terms o slang o jargon o abstractions  disruptive language (confusion) o fact-opinion confusion o fact-influence confusion o emotive language  emotive language  evasive language o euphemism  using polite language; sugar coating o equivocation  deliberately vague  gender and language  culture and language  S. Pinker & The Language instinct o an instinct to acquire an art  language is the natural ability to shape the images and impressions that occur in others‘ brains at any given moment  Misconceptions about language o its cultural invention o sapir-whorf hypothesis  notion that humans were distinct because they have language; and people who do not use language are not superior/less intelligence o language is modeled o decline in grammatical ability  Chomsky/Pinker Hypothesis: o language is an art…but one we are all capable of  Chatterboxes o no area has been hailed as the ―cradle of language‖  Language is innate o e.g. sign languages  Language Impairment o e.g. Aphasia, o Specific language impairment (SLI) o Williams syndrome  Language is a human mental organ 5/6/2013 2:53:00 PM Listening and non-verbal communication  listening Introduction  the most common misconceptions about listening.  five components of the listening process  the most common types of ineffective listening Increase your understanding of…  the challenges that make effectively in informational, critical, and empathic settings  listening as an effective research technique Misconceptions about li
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