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McMaster University
Communication Studies
Bridget O' Shaughnessy

Carbohydrates -used for fuel energy, storage, cell communication, and structural support *produced by plants: used by themselves & other organisms Monosaccharide-simple sugar Disaccharide- two monosaccharide joined together by a condensation rxn called glycosidic linkage (covalent bond) Polysaccharide- many subunits put together (complex carbohydrates) 1. Starch: - storage polysaccharide in plants - consist only of glucose - simple starch : amylase (no branches) - complex starch: amylopectin ( branches) 2. Glycogen- storage polysaccharide in animals - consist only of glucose --- highly branched 3. Cellulose- components to plant cell walls  humans lack enzyme to break links - consist only of B-glucose (linked in a diff. way) 4. Chitin – component of exoskeleton on insects, spiders, etc ( in surgery, their strength holds body tissue together) Anabolic Rxn- reactions that produce large molecules from smaller molecules Catabolic Rxn- reactions that breaks large molecules into smaller ones. Lipids- used for energy storage, important in the construction of plasma membrane * insoluble in water (hydrophobic) mostly made of hydrocarbons +FattyAcids- hydrocarbon chain with one carboxyl group, used to build other types of fats 1. Unsaturated- double bond between carbons reduce # of H atoms = kinked chain & found in plants 2. Saturated- carbon bond to max # of H atoms=straight chain & found in animals Triglycerides- consist of 3 fatty acid molecules & 1 glycerol, -condensation rxn results in ester linkage -close packing in animals from straight chain & kinked chain in plants prevents close packing Phospholipids-components to the cell membrane - 2 fatty acids chain, 1 glycerol & 1 phosphate group - form bilayer & micelle  non-polar hydrocarbon “tails” polar phosphate “head” NucleicAcid- store and transmit genetic information DNA deoxyribonucleic acid, has thymine, double strand RNAribonucleic acid, has uracil, single strand, Nitrogenous Bases pyrimidines= 6 member ring C&N: cytosine, thymine, uracil purines= 6 member ring fused with 5 member ring: adenine, guanine Sugar- ribose in RNA, deoxyribose in DNA PhosphateGroup- bonds to carbon at position 5. NucleicAcidPolymer- nucleotides are joined via phosphodiester bond which makes a sugar phosphate backbone Eukaryotic Cell Organelles – in animals, plants, fungi & protest ( have a nucleus & membrane-bound organelles) Nucleus- contains DNA & nucleolus ( which contains RNA & protein for ribosome assembly) - nucleoplasm (fluid-filled) - surrounded by nucleus envelope: 2 liquid bilayer - openings in envelope ( nuclear pores) allow small particles to travel in & out: made of groups of protein Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) - complex of flattened sacs: single bilayer membrane - an extension of the nuclear envelope -rough & smooth ( presence or absence of ribosome on exterior) - involved in protein synthesis & packaging for export & phospholipids synthesis. Golgi Apparatus/Body - complex of flattened sacs: single bilayer membrane - involved in storage, modification & packaging proteins and lipids for export Lysosomes &Peroxisomes -single bilayer membrane-bound sacs containing digestive enzymes -lysosomes contains enzymes for breaking down macromolecules, cell parts, foreign materials - peroxisome contains enzymes for breaking down toxins Vacuoles- single bilayer membrane-bound sac for storage of H₂O, ions, sugar, AA’s, macromolecules - animal cells have few small vacuoles, plant cells have one large vacuole. Vesicles- single bilayer membrane-bound sac for storage and transport - form from pinching off cell & organelle membranes -can fuse with cell and organelle membranes to release their contains Mitochondria- makes ATP -2 separate bilayer membranes: inner(highly folded) & outer (smooth) - interior of mitochondria= mitochondrial matrix , ---- -space between two membranes= intermembrane space Chloroplasts- found only in cells for photosynthesis - stroma: double bilayer membrane encloses interior fluid -granum: stacks of flattened disk Cytoskeleton- network of protein filaments extending throughout cytoplasm -reinforce, organize, move cell structures -microtubes = thick hollow tubes: important in cell division microfilaments= think fibres: important in maintaining cell shape Extracellular Matrix- network of fibrous protein filaments & carbohydrates outside the cell -found within the extracellular fluid , ---- supports & anchors cells, separates tissue, functions in cells signaling Cell Membrane -describe
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