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Lecture 15

CMST 1A03-Lecture 15 My Notes

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Communication Studies
Terry Flynn

Lecture 15: UHC Chapter 4 - Listening (October 25 ,2013) Misconceptions about Listening -Listening and Hearing are not thesame thing.  Hearing is a processwherein sound wavesstriketheeardrum and causevibrations that are transmitted to the brain.  Listening occurswhen the brainreconstructstheelectrochemicalimpulsesintoa representation of the original sound and then givesthemmeaning. *Listening consists of several stages. 1. Hearing 2. Attending: the act of payingattentiontoasignal. 3. Understanding: the processofmakingsenseofamessage. 4. Responding:providing observablefeedback toanother person. 5. Remembering: the act of recallingthepreviouslyintroduced information. Listening is not a Natural Process.  Listening isa skill, like speaking.Everybodydoesit,but fewdoit well. Listening requires Effort.  Every kind of listeningrequiresmentaleffort bythereceiver. All listeners do not receive the same message.  Physiological factors,personalinterestsand needs,and our socialrolesand cultural backgroundsallshapeand distort the data wehear intouniquely different messages. Overcoming Challenges to Effective Listening Faulty listening behaviours:  Pseudolistening: an imitationoftrue listeninginwhichthereceiver’smind is elsewhere.  Selective listening: a listeningstyle in which thereceiverrespondsonlyto messagesthat interest himorher.  Defensive listening: a responsestyleinwhichthereceiver perceivesaspeaker’s comments asan attack.  Ambushers: a style in whichthereceiver listenscarefullytogather information to use in an attack onthe speaker.  Insulated listening: a style inwhichthereceiverignoresundesirable information.  Insensitive listening: failuretorecognizethethoughtsor feelings that arenot directly expressed by a speaker,instead acceptingthespeaker’swordsthrough non-verbal clues.  Stage hogging: a listeningstyleinwhichthereceiver ismore concernedwith making hisor her own point thanwithunderstandingthespeaker.(Sometimes called ‘Conversational Narcissists’) Reasons for Poor Listening: *Some reasonscan be avoided,and othersareinescapablefactsoflife.  Effort: You can managethe effortthat’srequiredtolisten wellifyouprepare yourself for the task.  Message overload: If you can consciously decidewhich messages are worth your attention, you can devote the time it takes to understand them.  Rapid Thought: Try to rephrasethespeaker’sideasin your own words.Ask yourself how the ideasmight beusefultoyou.Consider other anglesthatthe speaker might not havementioned.  Psychological Noise: It usuallytakesaconscious effort toset aside your personal concerns if you expect to give others’ messages the attention they deserve.  Physical Noise: You can listen better byinsulatingyourselffromoutside distractions.Remove the sourcesofnoise,or find amorehospitableplace to speak in orderto make listeningwork.  Hearing Problems: If you suspect that youor someoneyouknowsuffersfrom hearing loss,it’swise to haveaphysicianor audiologist performan examination.  Faulty Assumptions: Consider howyouwould feelifother peopledismissed your comments withouthearingyouout.  Talking has more apparent advantages: Limitthefrequencyand lengthof your responses to a fraction oftheir usualamount.Youarelikelytodiscover that you’re learning more—and probablygainingthe appreciation oftheother person.  Media influences: Media trendsdiscouragethekind offocused attentionthatis necessary for careful listening,especiallytocomplicated ideasandfeelings. Informational Listening -It isa type of listening in which thegoalisto receive accuratelythesamethoughtsthe speaker istrying to convey. (The approachtotakewhen youwant tounderstand another person.) -When you are an informational listener,your goalistomake sureyouarereceivingthe same thoughts the other person istryingtoconvey.  Don’t argue or judge prematurely. Listen first, make sure youunderstand,andthenevaluateor argue,ifyou choose.  Separate the message from the speaker. Let the speaker finish their message.Ifyouwriteoffeverythingapersonsays before you consider it,youmaybecheatingyourselfout ofsomevaluable information.  Be opportunistic. “Isthere anything usefulinwhatthispersonis saying?” “What led the speaker tocom
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