Lecture 15: UHC Chapter 4 - Listening
(October 25 ,2013)
Misconceptions about Listening
-Listening and Hearing are not thesame thing.
Hearing is a processwherein sound wavesstriketheeardrum and causevibrations
that are transmitted to the brain.
Listening occurswhen the brainreconstructstheelectrochemicalimpulsesintoa
representation of the original sound and then givesthemmeaning.
*Listening consists of several stages.
2. Attending: the act of payingattentiontoasignal.
3. Understanding: the processofmakingsenseofamessage.
4. Responding:providing observablefeedback toanother person.
5. Remembering: the act of recallingthepreviouslyintroduced information.
Listening is not a Natural Process.
Listening isa skill, like speaking.Everybodydoesit,but fewdoit well.
Listening requires Effort.
Every kind of listeningrequiresmentaleffort bythereceiver.
All listeners do not receive the same message.
Physiological factors,personalinterestsand needs,and our socialrolesand
cultural backgroundsallshapeand distort the data wehear intouniquely
Overcoming Challenges to Effective Listening
Faulty listening behaviours:
Pseudolistening: an imitationoftrue listeninginwhichthereceiver’smind is
Selective listening: a listeningstyle in which thereceiverrespondsonlyto
messagesthat interest himorher.
Defensive listening: a responsestyleinwhichthereceiver perceivesaspeaker’s
comments asan attack.
Ambushers: a style in whichthereceiver listenscarefullytogather information
to use in an attack onthe speaker.
Insulated listening: a style inwhichthereceiverignoresundesirable
Insensitive listening: failuretorecognizethethoughtsor feelings that arenot
directly expressed by a speaker,instead acceptingthespeaker’swordsthrough
non-verbal clues. Stage hogging: a listeningstyleinwhichthereceiver ismore concernedwith
making hisor her own point thanwithunderstandingthespeaker.(Sometimes
called ‘Conversational Narcissists’)
Reasons for Poor Listening:
*Some reasonscan be avoided,and othersareinescapablefactsoflife.
Effort: You can managethe effortthat’srequiredtolisten wellifyouprepare
yourself for the task.
Message overload: If you can consciously decidewhich messages are worth your
attention, you can devote the time it takes to understand them.
Rapid Thought: Try to rephrasethespeaker’sideasin your own words.Ask
yourself how the ideasmight beusefultoyou.Consider other anglesthatthe
speaker might not havementioned.
Psychological Noise: It usuallytakesaconscious effort toset aside your
personal concerns if you expect to give others’ messages the attention they
Physical Noise: You can listen better byinsulatingyourselffromoutside
distractions.Remove the sourcesofnoise,or find amorehospitableplace to
speak in orderto make listeningwork.
Hearing Problems: If you suspect that youor someoneyouknowsuffersfrom
hearing loss,it’swise to haveaphysicianor audiologist performan examination.
Faulty Assumptions: Consider howyouwould feelifother peopledismissed
your comments withouthearingyouout.
Talking has more apparent advantages: Limitthefrequencyand lengthof
your responses to a fraction oftheir usualamount.Youarelikelytodiscover
that you’re learning more—and probablygainingthe appreciation oftheother
Media influences: Media trendsdiscouragethekind offocused attentionthatis
necessary for careful listening,especiallytocomplicated ideasandfeelings.
-It isa type of listening in which thegoalisto receive accuratelythesamethoughtsthe
speaker istrying to convey. (The approachtotakewhen youwant tounderstand
-When you are an informational listener,your goalistomake sureyouarereceivingthe
same thoughts the other person istryingtoconvey.
Don’t argue or judge prematurely.
Listen first, make sure youunderstand,andthenevaluateor argue,ifyou
Separate the message from the speaker.
Let the speaker finish their message.Ifyouwriteoffeverythingapersonsays
before you consider it,youmaybecheatingyourselfout ofsomevaluable
information. Be opportunistic.
“Isthere anything usefulinwhatthispersonis saying?”
“What led the speaker tocom