Organizational Behaviour and Management
• What Are Organizations?
o Social inventions for accomplishing common goals through group effort.
• Social inventions: The coordinated presence of people.
o The field of organizational behaviour is about understanding people and
managing them to work effectively.
• Goal Accomplishment: Organizational survival and adaptation to change are important
o The field of organizational behaviour is concerned with how organizations can
survive and adapt to change.
• Group Effort: Interaction and coordination among people to accomplish goals.
o The field of organizational behaviour is concerned with how to get people to
practise effective teamwork.
• What Is Organizational Behaviour?
o The attitudes and behaviours of individuals and groups in organizations.
o How organizations can be structured more effectively.
o How events in the external environment affect organizations.
• Goals of Organizational Behaviour
o Predicting organizational behaviour and events.
o Explaining organizational behaviour and events in organizations.
o Managing organizational behaviour.
• is the art of getting things accomplished in organizations through others.
• Prediction and explanation involves analysis while management is about action.
• Early Prescriptions Concerning Management
• Attempts to prescribe the “correct” way to manage an organization and achieve its
o Classical view and bureacuracy
o Human relations view
• The Classical View
o The classical view advocates a high degree of specialization of labour and
coordination and centralized decision making.
• Scientific Management
o Scientific management is Frederick’s Taylor’s system for using research to
determine the optimum degree of specialization and standardization of work
• Bureaucracy is Max Weber’s ideal type of organization that includes:
o Strict chain of command
o Selection and promotion criteria based on technical competence
o Detailed rules, regulations, and procedures
o High specialization o Centralization of power at the top of the organization
• The Human Relations Movement and a Critique of Bureaucracy
o The human relations movement began with the famous Hawthorne Studies of
the 1920s and 1930s conducted at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric.
• The Hawthorne Studies
o Concerned with the impact of fatigue, rest pauses, and lighting on employee
o The studies illustrated how psychological and social processes affect productivity
and work adjustment.
o Suggested there could be dysfunctional aspects to how work was organized.
• Critique of Bureaucracy
• The human relations movement called attention to certain dysfunctional aspects of
classical management and bureaucracy:
o Employee alienation
o Limits innovation and adaptation
o Resistance to change
o Minimum acceptable level of performance
o Employees lose sight of the overall goals of the organization
• The Human Relations Movement
o Advocated more people-oriented and participative styles of management that
catered more to the social and psychological needs of employees.
• The movement called for:
o more flexible systems of management
o the design of more interesting jobs
o open communication
o employee participation in decision making
o less rigid, more decentralized forms of control
• Contemporary Management
• The Contingency Approach
o The general answer to many of the problems in organizations is: “It depends.”
o Dependencies are called contingencies.
o The contingency approach to management recognizes that there is no one best
way to manage.
o An appropriate management styles depends on the demands of the situation.
• What Do Managers Do?
o The field of organizational behaviour is concerned with what managers actually
do in organizations.
• Research on what managers do has focused on:
o Managerial roles
Interpersonal: establishing and maintaing interpersonal relations
(figurehead role, leadership role)
Informational: concerned with various ways managers receive and
transmit information (monitor role, disseminator role)
Decisional: deal with decision making (entrepreneur role, negotiator role o Managerial activities
Routine Communication: formal sending receiving of information
Traditional Management: planning, decision making and controlling
Networking: interaction with people outside of the organization
Human Resource Management: motivating, reinforcing, disciplining,
punishing, managing conflict, staffing, training and developing employees
Emphasis on these various activities is related to success
Networking is related to quickly moving up the company ranks
HR is related to employee satisfaction and unit effectiveness
o Managerial agendas
Agenda setting: what a manager wants to accomplish for an organization
Networking: establishes a wide formal and informal netword of key
people in and out of a company
Agenda implementation: use networkd to implement agenda
High degree of informal interaction and concern with people issues are
necessary for managers to achieve their agendas
Managers often find themselves dependent on people over whom they
wielded no power
o Managerial minds
Sensing that problems exist
Perform well learned tasks rapidly
Synthesize isolated pieces of info and data
Double-check for more formal or mechanical analyses
Good intuition enabled a manager to locate problems
o International managers
The style in which managers do what they do and the emphasis
they give to various activities will vary greatly across cultures
Cultural variations in values affect both managers and employees
expectations about interpersonal interaction
National culture is one of the most important contingency
variable in organizational behaviour
Some Contemporary Management Concerns
Five issues with which organizations and managers are currently concerned:
o Diversity – Local and Global
o Employee-Organization Relationships
o A Focus on Quality, Speed, and Flexibility
o Talent Management
o Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)
Chapter Two: Personality and Learning
o Focuses on individual character and personality o Individuals possess stable traits or characteristics that influence their attitudes
o Individuals are predisposed to behave in certain ways
o Characteristics of the organizational setting such as rewards and punishments
influence people’s feelings, attitudes and behaviours
o Many studies have shown that situational factors such as the characteristic of
work tasks predict job satisfaction
o Organizational behaviour is a function of both dispositions and the situation
o To predict and understand organizational behaviour, we need to know
something about an individual’s personality and the work setting
o The is the more widely accepted approach
Personality and the situation
o Situations can be
o Weak: roles are loosely defined, few rules, weak reinforcement
• Personality is strongest in weak situations
o Strong: the roles, rules and contingencies are more defined
• Personality has less of an impact
Five Factor Model of Personality
o Extraversion: sociable, talkative vs withdrawn, shy
o Emotional Stability/Neuroticism: stable, confident vs depressed, anxious
o Agreeableness: tolerant, cooperative vs cold, rude
o Conscientiousness: dependable, responsible vs careless, impulsive
o Openness to experience: curious, original vs dull, unimaginable
Locus of Control
o Set of beliefs about whether one’s behaviour is controlled mainly by internal or
o Internals believe that the opportunity to control their own behaviour resides
o Externals believe that external forces determine their behaviour
Self monitoring: the extent to which people observe and regulate how they appear and
behave in social settings and relationships
Self Esteem: the degree to which a person has a positive self-evaluation
o People with low self esteem are more susceptible to external and social
influences, are more affected by the organization
o Experience positive emotions and moods and view the world in a positive light
o Higher job satisfaction/performance
o Experience negative emotions and moods and view the world in a negative light
o Lower job performance/satisfaction
Proactive o Relatively stable personal disposition that reflects a tendency to behave
o Takes initiative, search for opportunities
General Self Efficacy
o A trait that refers to an individuals belief in his or her ability to perform
successfully in a variety of challenges
o A motivational trait not an affective one
Core Self Evaluations
o A broad personality trait that consists of specific traits that reflect the
evaluations people hold about themselves and their self worth
o Relatively permanent change in behaviour due to practice
• Practical skills: job specific skills, knowledge, technical competence
• Intrapersonal skills: problem solving, critical thinking, risk taking
• Interpersonal skills: communication, teamwork
• Cultural awareness: social norms, goals, expectations
o We learn from CONSEQUENCES, we want to achieve certin things and learn that
what we do provides us with different outcomes
o Positive and negative reinforcement enables managers to let employees know
that positive actions will be rewarded, therefore more positive actions will occur
o Reinforcement: the process by which stimuli strengthens behaviour
• Positive: increases or maintains the probability of desirable behaviour
• Negative: removal of a stimulus from a situation, it prevents a situation
o Performance Feedback: providing quantitative or qualitative info on past
performance to change or maintain it
• Keep it positive, deliver it immediately, be specific
o Social Recognition: involves informal acknowledgment, praise or approval for
work that is well done
o Reducing bad behaviour
• Extinction: gradual dissipation of behaviour following reinforcement
where another behaviour is substituted
• Punishment: application of an aversive stimulus following unwanted
o Social Cognitive Theory
• People learn by observing the behaviours of others and can regulation
behaviour by thinking of consequences
• Person and environmental factors influence behaviour
• Observational Learning: imitating the behaviours of others
• Self-efficacy: beliefs people have about their ability to perform a task,
what people choose to do, the amount of effort. It is influenced by four
sources of info (performance mastery, observation, verbal
persuasion/social influences and physiological state) • Self-regulation: use of learning priciples to regulate behaviour, persuing
Organizational Learning Practices
o Organizational behaviour modification: use of learning principles to influence
organizational behaviour (money, feedback, social recognition)
o Employee recognition: programs that publicly recognixr and reward employees
o Training programs: planned organizational activities that facilitie knowledge and
skill building in order to change performance
• BMT: behaviour modelling training, based on social cognitive theory
o Career development: ongoing process in which individuals progress through a
series of stages that consist of unique issues themes and tasks
• Perception: process of interpreting messages to provide order and meaning, people
base behaviours on their perception of reality
Past experiences provide biases
We wish what we want to
Emotions influence perception
o Target to be perceived