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Organizational Behaviour and Management.docx

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Mosey Nicholas J

Organizational Behaviour and Management Chapter One • What Are Organizations? o Social inventions for accomplishing common goals through group effort. • Social inventions: The coordinated presence of people. o The field of organizational behaviour is about understanding people and managing them to work effectively. • Goal Accomplishment: Organizational survival and adaptation to change are important goals. o The field of organizational behaviour is concerned with how organizations can survive and adapt to change. • Group Effort: Interaction and coordination among people to accomplish goals. o The field of organizational behaviour is concerned with how to get people to practise effective teamwork. • What Is Organizational Behaviour? o The attitudes and behaviours of individuals and groups in organizations. o How organizations can be structured more effectively. o How events in the external environment affect organizations. • Goals of Organizational Behaviour o Predicting organizational behaviour and events. o Explaining organizational behaviour and events in organizations. o Managing organizational behaviour. Management • is the art of getting things accomplished in organizations through others. • Prediction and explanation involves analysis while management is about action. • Early Prescriptions Concerning Management • Attempts to prescribe the “correct” way to manage an organization and achieve its goals: o Classical view and bureacuracy o Human relations view • The Classical View o The classical view advocates a high degree of specialization of labour and coordination and centralized decision making. • Scientific Management o Scientific management is Frederick’s Taylor’s system for using research to determine the optimum degree of specialization and standardization of work tasks. • Bureaucracy is Max Weber’s ideal type of organization that includes: o Strict chain of command o Selection and promotion criteria based on technical competence o Detailed rules, regulations, and procedures o High specialization o Centralization of power at the top of the organization • The Human Relations Movement and a Critique of Bureaucracy o The human relations movement began with the famous Hawthorne Studies of the 1920s and 1930s conducted at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric. • The Hawthorne Studies o Concerned with the impact of fatigue, rest pauses, and lighting on employee productivity. o The studies illustrated how psychological and social processes affect productivity and work adjustment. o Suggested there could be dysfunctional aspects to how work was organized. • Critique of Bureaucracy • The human relations movement called attention to certain dysfunctional aspects of classical management and bureaucracy: o Employee alienation o Limits innovation and adaptation o Resistance to change o Minimum acceptable level of performance o Employees lose sight of the overall goals of the organization • The Human Relations Movement o Advocated more people-oriented and participative styles of management that catered more to the social and psychological needs of employees. • The movement called for: o more flexible systems of management o the design of more interesting jobs o open communication o employee participation in decision making o less rigid, more decentralized forms of control • Contemporary Management • The Contingency Approach o The general answer to many of the problems in organizations is: “It depends.” o Dependencies are called contingencies. o The contingency approach to management recognizes that there is no one best way to manage. o An appropriate management styles depends on the demands of the situation. • What Do Managers Do? o The field of organizational behaviour is concerned with what managers actually do in organizations. • Research on what managers do has focused on: o Managerial roles  Interpersonal: establishing and maintaing interpersonal relations (figurehead role, leadership role)  Informational: concerned with various ways managers receive and transmit information (monitor role, disseminator role)  Decisional: deal with decision making (entrepreneur role, negotiator role o Managerial activities  Routine Communication: formal sending receiving of information  Traditional Management: planning, decision making and controlling  Networking: interaction with people outside of the organization  Human Resource Management: motivating, reinforcing, disciplining, punishing, managing conflict, staffing, training and developing employees  Emphasis on these various activities is related to success  Networking is related to quickly moving up the company ranks  HR is related to employee satisfaction and unit effectiveness o Managerial agendas  Agenda setting: what a manager wants to accomplish for an organization  Networking: establishes a wide formal and informal netword of key people in and out of a company  Agenda implementation: use networkd to implement agenda  High degree of informal interaction and concern with people issues are necessary for managers to achieve their agendas  Managers often find themselves dependent on people over whom they wielded no power o Managerial minds  Sensing that problems exist  Perform well learned tasks rapidly  Synthesize isolated pieces of info and data  Double-check for more formal or mechanical analyses  Good intuition enabled a manager to locate problems o International managers  The style in which managers do what they do and the emphasis they give to various activities will vary greatly across cultures  Cultural variations in values affect both managers and employees expectations about interpersonal interaction  National culture is one of the most important contingency variable in organizational behaviour  Some Contemporary Management Concerns  Five issues with which organizations and managers are currently concerned: o Diversity – Local and Global o Employee-Organization Relationships o A Focus on Quality, Speed, and Flexibility o Talent Management o Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Chapter Two: Personality and Learning  Dispositional Approach o Focuses on individual character and personality o Individuals possess stable traits or characteristics that influence their attitudes and behaviour o Individuals are predisposed to behave in certain ways  Situational Approach o Characteristics of the organizational setting such as rewards and punishments influence people’s feelings, attitudes and behaviours o Many studies have shown that situational factors such as the characteristic of work tasks predict job satisfaction  Interactionist Approach o Organizational behaviour is a function of both dispositions and the situation o To predict and understand organizational behaviour, we need to know something about an individual’s personality and the work setting o The is the more widely accepted approach  Personality and the situation o Situations can be o Weak: roles are loosely defined, few rules, weak reinforcement • Personality is strongest in weak situations o Strong: the roles, rules and contingencies are more defined • Personality has less of an impact  Five Factor Model of Personality o Extraversion: sociable, talkative vs withdrawn, shy o Emotional Stability/Neuroticism: stable, confident vs depressed, anxious o Agreeableness: tolerant, cooperative vs cold, rude o Conscientiousness: dependable, responsible vs careless, impulsive o Openness to experience: curious, original vs dull, unimaginable  Locus of Control o Set of beliefs about whether one’s behaviour is controlled mainly by internal or external factors o Internals believe that the opportunity to control their own behaviour resides within them o Externals believe that external forces determine their behaviour  Self monitoring: the extent to which people observe and regulate how they appear and behave in social settings and relationships  Self Esteem: the degree to which a person has a positive self-evaluation o People with low self esteem are more susceptible to external and social influences, are more affected by the organization  Positive Affectivity o Experience positive emotions and moods and view the world in a positive light o Higher job satisfaction/performance  Negative Affectivity o Experience negative emotions and moods and view the world in a negative light o Lower job performance/satisfaction  Proactive o Relatively stable personal disposition that reflects a tendency to behave practically o Takes initiative, search for opportunities  General Self Efficacy o A trait that refers to an individuals belief in his or her ability to perform successfully in a variety of challenges o A motivational trait not an affective one  Core Self Evaluations o A broad personality trait that consists of specific traits that reflect the evaluations people hold about themselves and their self worth  Learning o Relatively permanent change in behaviour due to practice • Practical skills: job specific skills, knowledge, technical competence • Intrapersonal skills: problem solving, critical thinking, risk taking • Interpersonal skills: communication, teamwork • Cultural awareness: social norms, goals, expectations o We learn from CONSEQUENCES, we want to achieve certin things and learn that what we do provides us with different outcomes o Positive and negative reinforcement enables managers to let employees know that positive actions will be rewarded, therefore more positive actions will occur o Reinforcement: the process by which stimuli strengthens behaviour • Positive: increases or maintains the probability of desirable behaviour • Negative: removal of a stimulus from a situation, it prevents a situation from occurring o Performance Feedback: providing quantitative or qualitative info on past performance to change or maintain it • Keep it positive, deliver it immediately, be specific o Social Recognition: involves informal acknowledgment, praise or approval for work that is well done o Reducing bad behaviour • Extinction: gradual dissipation of behaviour following reinforcement where another behaviour is substituted • Punishment: application of an aversive stimulus following unwanted behaviour o Social Cognitive Theory • People learn by observing the behaviours of others and can regulation behaviour by thinking of consequences • Person and environmental factors influence behaviour • Observational Learning: imitating the behaviours of others • Self-efficacy: beliefs people have about their ability to perform a task, what people choose to do, the amount of effort. It is influenced by four sources of info (performance mastery, observation, verbal persuasion/social influences and physiological state) • Self-regulation: use of learning priciples to regulate behaviour, persuing set goals  Organizational Learning Practices o Organizational behaviour modification: use of learning principles to influence organizational behaviour (money, feedback, social recognition) o Employee recognition: programs that publicly recognixr and reward employees o Training programs: planned organizational activities that facilitie knowledge and skill building in order to change performance • BMT: behaviour modelling training, based on social cognitive theory o Career development: ongoing process in which individuals progress through a series of stages that consist of unique issues themes and tasks Chapter Three • Perception: process of interpreting messages to provide order and meaning, people base behaviours on their perception of reality o Perceiver  Past experiences provide biases  We wish what we want to  Emotions influence perception o Target to be perceived
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