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Organizational Behaviour Week 8B - Leadership.docx

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McMaster University
Teal Mc Ateer

Week 8B – Leadership Leadership  The influence that particular individuals exert on the goal achievement of others in an organizational context  How do you shift people o Move or manage to get daily tasks done o Inspire people to do the extraordinary to innovate and go outside the box  Formal – legitimacy and role/position o Recognize by title o Expected to influence people o Assigned to lead  Informal – no legitimate title, positive power always and critical knowledge and experience o Seemingly lower level participant o Rely on being liked o Based on charisma, skills and expertise  Leaders versus managers o The role of the leader and the role of the manager are not the same o All leaders have managerial capabilities  Transformational vs transactional o Transformational – leadership that provides followers with a new vision that instills true commitment, constantly strengthening autonomy and giving opportunities  Arouse intense feelings  Inspirational  Rely on personal sources of power  Charisma o Transactional – leadership that is based on a straightforward exchange relationship between leaders and followers, striving for common visions  Motivate by exchanging rewards for services  Manager-like role Universal Leader Influence  Leaders are leaders because of some enduring aspect of personality or behaviour (nothing to do with the situation)  Universal trait (great person approach, transformational leaders) o Belief that certain individuals are destined to be leaders regardless of the situation, o Traits are individual characteristics such as physical attributes, intellectual ability and personality o Limitations of the trait approach  Hard to determine whether traits make the leader or whether the opportunity for leadership produces traits  Little information about how to train and develop leaders  Traits are only a precondition for certain actions  Universal behaviour (socio-emotional/task leaders) o Is there a particular leadership style that is more effective than others? o Task leader  A leader who is concerned with accomplishing a task by organizing others, planning strategy and dividing labour (above the water line, task-orientated) o Social-emotional leader  A leader who is concerned with reducing tension, patching up disagreements and maintaining morale (below the water line, people-orientated) o Results are follower satisfaction and a high level of performance  Ohio State studies o Initiating consideration (people) – the extent to which a leader is approachable and shows personal concern for employees o Initiating structure (production) – the degree to which a leader concentrates on group goal attainment  Why not universal leaders? o Leaders weren’t generalizable o What are behaviours of effective leaders o High levels of performance, follower satisfaction Situation-Contingent Leader Influence  Leaders will adjust the expression of traits and behaviour to fit the demand of the situation (situational sensor)  Contingency trait o Fielder’s contingency theory  The association between leadership orientation and group effectiveness is contingent on how favourable the situation is for exerting influence  Maybe we do have to consider the situation  Measure the leader, figure out whether he or she is task- orientated or people-orientated then matching by choosing the right leader for the right situation  Leadership orientation  Least preferred co-worker scale  LPC: a current or past co-worker with whom a leader has had a difficult time accomplishing a task  High LPC is relationship orientated and vice-versa  Situational favourableness  Measured by three factors o Leader-member relations  Extent to which people trust and respect the leader and follow his or her directions o Task structure  Degree to which a task is clearly specified and defined as opposed to ambiguous
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