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Chapter 6 _ Training and Strategic Development of People.docx

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Frances Tuer

Chapter 6 – Training and Strategic Development of People THE RELATIONSHIP AMONG TRAINING, DEVELOPMENT, AND CAREERS Training and Development • Training: a planned effort to facilitate employees’ learning of job-related competencies, which include knowledge, skills or behaviours that are critical for successful job performance • For training to offer a competitive advantage it should create intellectual capital, which includes basic skills, advanced skills, and an understanding of the customer or manufacturing system, and self-motivated creativity • Development: the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and behaviours that improve an employee’s ability to meet changes in job requirements and in client and customer demands o Because it is future oriented, it involves learning that is not necessarily related to the employee’s current job • Training focuses on helping employees’ performance in their current jobs • Development prepares employees for other positions in the company and increase their ability to move into jobs that may not yet exist o Also helps employees prepare for changes in their current jobs that may result from new technology, work designs, new customers, or new product markets HIGH-LEVERAGE TRAINING STRATEGY: A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH • Jobs require extensive use of knowledge, meaning that employees are required to share knowledge and use it to creatively modify products and services, or understand the service or product development system, therefore must adopt broader perspective on training • High-leverage training: training practice that links training to strategic business goals, has top management support, relies on an instructional design model, and is benchmarked to programs in other organizations • High-leverage training practices help create working conditions that encourage continuous learning: a learning system that requires employees to understand the entire work process and expects them to acquire new skills, apply them on the job, and share what they have learned with other employees • High leverage training is used to improve employee performance, which leads to improved business results • Strategic training and development process: o Identify strategic training and development initiatives that will help achieve the business strategy o Employees then participate in specific training and development activities that support these initiatives o The final step involves collecting measures or metrics (metrics are used to determine if training helped contribute to goals related to business strategy) DESIGNING EFFECTIVE TRAINING ACTIVITIES • Training activities that contribute to competitiveness is created using one of several well- known systems of instructional design, or what is referred to as a training design process: a systematic approach for developing training programs • Steps of the training design process include: needs assessment, ensuring employees’ readiness for training, creating a learning environment, ensuring transfer of training, selecting training methods, and evaluating training programs Needs Assessment • Needs assessment: the process used to determine if training is necessary • Many ‘pressure points’ (causes and outcomes from needs assessment) suggest that training is necessary and these pressure points include performance problems, new technology, customer requests (internal or external) for training, new legislation, new jobs, new products, or lack of basic skills (among employees) as well as support for the company’s business strategy • Needs assessment involves organizational analysis, person analysis, and task analysis o Organizational analysis (considers the context in which training will occur): a process for determining the business appropriateness of training, given the company’s business strategy, its resources available for training, and support by managers and peers for training activities o Person analysis (helps identify who needs training): a process for determining whether employees need training, who needs training, and whether employees are ready for training o Task analysis: the process of identifying the tasks, knowledge, skills, and behaviours that need to be emphasized in training • Person analysis and task analysis are conducted at the same time because it is difficult to determine whether performance deficiencies are a training problem without understanding the tasks and work environment • Needs assessment shows who needs training and what trainees need to learn • Needs assessment also determines whether the company will purchase training from a vendor or consultant or develop training using internal resources Ensuring Employees’ Readiness for Training • Readiness for training refers to whether employees have the personal characteristics necessary to learn program content and apply it on the job and the work environment will facilitate learning and not interfere with performance • Motivation to learn: is the desire of the trainee to learn the content of the training program o Research shows motivation is related to knowledge gain, behaviour change, or skill acquisition in training programs • Managers needs to ensure employees’ motivation to learn is as high as possible and one way to do this is by ensuring employees’ self-efficacy: the employees’ belief that they can successfully learn the content of a training program • Employee motivation is also impacted by the work environment o It is in the manager’s interest to ensure any situational constraints are removed and that trainees receive as much support as possible Creating a Learning Environment • The conditions under which employees learn best, and events that should occur include: o 1. Trainees need to know why they should learn (objectives and outcomes) o 2. Training programs need meaningful content o 3. Training should provide opportunities for practice and feedback o 4. Trainees need to observe, experience and interact with others o 5. Training should include good program coordination and administration o 6. Trainees need to commit training content to memory Ensuring Transfer of Training • Transfer of training: the use of knowledge, skills, and behaviours learned in training on the job • Transfer of training is influenced by the climate for transfer, manager support, peer support, opportunity to use learned capabilities, technological support, and self- management skills • Climate for transfer: trainees’ perceptions of characteristics of the work environment (social support and situational constraints) that can either facilitate or inhibit use of trained skills or behaviour o These characteristics include manager and peer support, opportunity to use skills, and the consequences for using learned capabilities • Opportunity to perform: trainees are provided with or actively seek experience using newly learned knowledge, skills, or behaviour o Trainees can use learned capabilities through assigned work experiences or by actively seeking out assignments that allow them to use new capabilities • Electronic performance support system (EPSS): computer applications that can provide skills training, information access, and expert advice o EPSS may be used to enhance transfer of training by giving trainees electronic information that they can refer to as needs as they attempt to apply learned capabilities on the job • Training programs should prepare employees to self-manage their use of new skills and behaviours on the job (if this is unclear refer to page 217) Selecting Training Methods • Despite the new use of technology-based methods of training, along with self-directed study, instructor-led classroom training is still the most frequently used method Presentation Methods • Presentation methods: training methods in which trainees are passive recipients of information • Presentation methods include traditional classroom instruction, including distance learning; audiovisual techniques; and mobile technology Instructor-Led Classroom Instruction • Typically involves having the trainer lecture a group • Lecture is supplemented with question-and-answer periods, discussion, or case studies • One of the least expensive, least time-consuming ways to present info • Distance learning can be used by geographically dispersed companies o Distance learning features two-way communications between people and enables companies to provide information as well as skills training and expert lectures to field locations  Includes technology such as teleconferencing, webcasting, and individualized, personal computer-based training Audiovisual Techniques • Includes overheads, slides, and video • Video is rarely used alone; it is usually used with lectures to show real-life experiences/examples Mobile Technologies: iPods and PDAs • Allow training and learning to occur naturally throughout the workday or at home, allow employees to be connected to communities of learning, and give employees the ability to learn at their own pace by reviewing material or skipping over content they know Hands-on Methods • Hands-on methods: training methods that actively involve the trainee in learning • Include on-the-job training, simulations, business games and case studies, behaviour modeling, interactive video, and e-learning On-the-Job Training (OJT) • On-the-job training (OJT): new or inexperienced employees learning through observing peers or managers performing the job and trying to imitate their behaviour • Useful for training newly hired employees, upgrading experienced employees’ skills when new technology is introduced, cross-training employees within a department or work unit, and orienting transferred or promoted employees to their new jobs • Takes various forms like self-directed learning programs and apprenticeships • OJT is an attractive training method as it needs less investment in time or money • OJT must be structured to be effective • OJT is based on the principles emphasized in social learning theory including the use of a credible trainer, a manager or peer who models the behaviour or skill, communication of specific key behaviours, practice, feedback, and reinforcement • Self-directed learning: a program in which employees take responsibility for all aspects of learning • Apprenticeship: a work-study training method with both on-the-job and classroom o Apprenticeships can be sponsored by individual companies or by groups of companies cooperating with a union • OJT includes: o Employer verifying that the trainee has required knowledge of operation/process o The trainer (journeyperson) demonstrates each step of the process, emphasizing safety issues and key steps o Trainer provides the apprentice with opportunity to perform the process until all are satisfied that the apprentice can perform it properly and safely Simulations • Simulation: a training method that represents a real-life situation, allowing trainees to see the outcomes of their decisions in an artificial environment o Effective simulations have job situations represented with both physical and psychological accuracy • Virtual reality: Computer-based technology that provides trainees with a three- dimensional learning experience. Trainees operate in a simulated environment that responds to their behaviours and reactions Business Games and Case Studies • Situations that trainees study and discuss (case studies) and business games in which trainees must gather information, analyze it, and make decisions are used primarily for management skill development ‘ • Types of decisions that participants make in games include all aspects of management practice, including labour relations, marketing, and finance Behaviour Modeling • Behaviour modeling is one of the most effective techniques for teaching interpersonal skills • In practice sessions, trainees get feedback regarding how closely their behaviour matches the key
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