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McMaster University
Skowronski, Capretta, Dodds

COMM 3S03 Chapter 5 Three fundamental principles about the manager as coach: 1) Management is the intervention of getting things done through others 2) Managers need their people more than those people need the manager 3) Managers get rewarded for what their employees do, not for what the managers do -Coaching forms the basis of the relationship between employee and manager and nothing is more important o a manager’s success that that mentoring: an intense, long-term relationship between a senior, more experienced person and a more junior, less experienced person. -differs from coaching because goal of mentoring is focused on an employee’s overall development and not necessarily day-to-day performance -mentors are typically not the employee’s direct supervisor Myths of performance management: -People are naturally good observers of behavior: -without concerted discipline and utilization of some evidence-based methods, most do not do well at judging behavior -coaching is about personal style: -in organizations more about evidence-based methods -performance management is mostly common sense: -reality is most of people are less than satisfied with the way they are managed -feedback is always effective: -recent research reveals that poorly administered feedback can lead to decreased performance -coaching is only for low performers -everyone can benefit from it Performance Management Cycle (PMC); essential elements of coaching. -Primary role of a coach is to select, assess, and manage employee performance throughout the cycle Choosing the right people for the right jobs -a disciplined and systematic approach will move you toward success -even the best selection tactics are subject ot some error; no method is fool proof Future job performance: methods allow managers to assess potential employee’ fit for job requirements -posses the right knowledge, skill and ability to successfully perform job? Future person-organization fit: fit culture of organization -highly capable but don’t click with culture (long-hour expectations) Three step selection process 1) Clarify the job context -know yourself: -explain the question, “why would anyone want to work for you?” -Candidates need to know what ot expect when they work for you -know the job -Job analysis: describe and define the job to be filled. Collecting information about what tasks (actual work) and knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) are required for the job -should include critical duties and tasks, KSAs required, working conditions, educational requirements, physical demands and legal or company policies or requirements -know the law Keep it job related Treat all candidates the same Use valid tests Don’t discriminate 2) Establish a process -standardize it: -in order to be able to say one candidate is better than another you must ensure your process is standardized -everyone compared on even playing field -involve others -can include co-workers, subordinates, internal customers or experiences employees who know the culture -to keep with standardization, others should be involved in the same way for each candidate -create an Realistic Job Preview (RJP) -less drop of out selection process -lower turnover after hired -verbal RJP is better than videotape 3) decide on methods and assess -Steps to follow for the most effective selection process a) Define performance b) use different methods for different jobs c)use reliable and valid methods d)collect multiple pieces of data e)defy conventional wisdom -large gap between what people think and what is actually effective Validity: how well statistically, the method predicts future job performance Fairness: degree to which the method avoids unintentional discrimination Feasibility: degree to which method can reasonably be employed in different situation Face Validity: degree to which applicants believe the selection method fairly measures the requirements for the job -getting the most from interviews Unstructured interview: interviewer and applicant have a conversation that is unscripted. Maybe have general topics wanted covered but it is unscripted. Structured interview: interviewer follows an interview script designed specifically to target certain KSAs required for the job, asking the same questions of all job applicants -beyond the interview focus on what an applicant can or did do rather than what she says or said she can do Situational interviews: hypothetical scenario questions that ask candidates to describe in detail how they would likely behave in such a situation Behavioral interviews: include question that ask candidates to recount actual instances from their past work or relevant experiences relative to the job at hand Behavioral intentions: motivation and thoughts that are immediate precursors of a person’s actual behavior and acknowledge that reality that past behavior is a strong predictor of future behavior Important interview reminders: -Avoid non-job-related questions better results and avoid possible legal recourse by applicant -use panel (group) interviews wisely -the more the people interviewing the less likely the interview will be a valid predictor -avoid more than three interviewers -do not over-weight negative information -be aware of subtle biases -tend to be too influenced by applicant attractiveness, similarities in race and gender, and nonverbal behavior such as eye contact Performance tests: tests designed specifically to measure “hands-on” skills -highly predictive of future job performance Work sample: samples of the work involved in the performance obtained under realistic work conditions -type of performance test 1)Select the sample 2) Define performance 3)Create a realistic environment Assessment center: a collection of work samples that mimic a “day in the life” of a manager (e.g. group discussions, employee feedback…) -a method for evaluating not a location -often expensive to conduct and develop Cognitive ability tests: measure a person’s ability to learn and acquire cognitive skills including verbal, mathematical, spatial and reasoning. -most widely discussed and misunderstood -can still be a good predictor even when applicant pool is already restricted to high intelligence -not always used because a) great deal of misunderstanding regarding its usefulness and b) the tests may cause an adverse impact on hiring certain minority groups because of the way traditional tests are constructed Recommendations regarding cognitive ability tests.. -use when there is high job complexity -don’t use if you’re thinking of increasing minority representation -significant experience can compensate for lower levels of cognitive ability Personality tests can be valuable for sales-oriented jobs, customer service jobs and management trainee jobs Defining performance criteria: -to find the results for any job ask the following: -if this employee performs poorly, what would suffer? -eg,
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