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Chapter 6.docx

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Chapter 6: Chemical & Biological Agents - chemical agent: hazards that are created by any one or any combination of a very large # of chemicals & their physical reactions o more than 700,000 are used in NA, no toxicity data isn’t available for ~80% o MCS = multiple chemical sensitivity complaints such as headaches, dry nasal, nausea… o Synergistic effects: occur when the result of 2 factors taken together is greater than the sum of the 2 o 80% of all occup. Illnesses are the result of chemical exposures o toxicity: its ability to cause injury to human biological tissue or its explosive properties o aerosols: airborne reparable contaminants - Biological Agent (biohazard): can be as subtle & as deadly as some chemical agents & are created by exposure to biological material (mold, fungus, bacteria, viruses) o Diseases resulting from this are Legionnaires & AIDS o Most occur through inhalation o Bacterial, chlamydia, viruses, fungal.. - Toxicology: the scientific study of poisons - Routes of entry: 1. Respiration (Inhalation): nose  nasal passage (turbinates: humidifiers)  back of throat w/ mucus  lung passages (bronchi)  air sacs (alveoli) 2. Skin absorption: many fat-soluble chemicals are readily absorbed & most gases can pass through quickly, pesticides, chemicals that aren’t absorbed may cause irritation, skin disorders (plants – biological action), skin damage (radiation – physical action) 3. Ingestion: may be absorbed into the bloodstream & carried to target organs where it will produce toxic effects.  can also be aspirated into the lungs where it can destroy the surfactant layer, cause a chemical pneumatic & collapse the alveoli 4. Penetration: occurs when the skin is cut or punctured by any sharp object - Environmental Illness (EI): involves healthy ppl experiencing long-lasting symptoms of physical distress in their work settings (exist in 20-30% of all work settings). Symptoms include skin ailments, mucous irritation affecting eyes, nose & throat, fatigue, dizziness… - Asbestos: a class of strong & flexible mineral fibers, have a latency period & can cause o Asbestosis: scarring of lung t
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