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Computer Science

Computer Science Tom Kilby Course outline available at About the Course Intro to info tech Two lectures/week UTS labs may be necessary in order to use Microsoft office 2010 Tutorials begin next week, strongly recommended FIRST MIDTERM SATURDAY OCTOBER 13 TH2012 (13:00-14:00) SAM Cs1ba3-2012 Citrix Preparation Advice: -Walk through the text chapters in advance of class -This makes things easier to follow -attend class follow along with data files Exam -don‟t worry about key strokes, learn it by recognition Before class 2 read chapter 1 Excel Tables, Pivot Tables Excel 10/25/2012 6:19:00 AM Excel files are called workbooks .xlsx Made up of sheets -worksheets -chart sheets /you can have multiple workbooks and sheets open, the one youre working on is active /workbooks can be used and updated by many people, extremely complicated /incorporate many worksheets chart sheets and extensive data /formulas can populate the cells /one can be the source data for other worksheets and workbooks All of these should be considered Practice -Plan out your workbook /what will you solve /what data is necessary /what calculations are required /what form should the solution take these questions determine the worksheet required Include a documentation sheet to describe your workbook Cells, Cell ranges A group of cells Ranges also have references Adjacent, non adjacent Formulas Main reason for excel is formulae begins with = operators combine values arithmetic operators usually numbers stored in cells bedmas applies Pivot tables + Advanced Funtions 10/25/2012 6:19:00 AM Recap: Formulas, functions, Excel tables Pivot tables: summarize and reorganize tables -Use it to re-organize long charts, slide categories between columns, rows, etc. boxes to quickly re-organize IF functions use logical functions, return a true or false value Part 2- 10/25/2012 6:19:00 AM In degroote, labs are all set up with office 2010 Access is the database management system -microsoft access saves your changes automatically skim through the white pages, then do the yellow, then attend the tutorial questions: book lecture spoken Access, Access window and backstage view (options, open saved file etc.) Datasheet view vs design view, Differences between worksheets and datasheets, and that‟s the nature of the column. Cells in a worksheet can all be different data formats, whereas in a datasheet all of the cells in the same column of a datasheet must be the same data type. Use of a table, in excel you create and manipulate a table. In access a table looks similar a table is extremely different Entity: a person, object or event In access, an entity is called a table. Relational databases Data files are .accdb Formal term for the rows is tuple, in access this is a record. Fields and records are columns and rows. Columns represent different attributes, Rows represent instances Tuple- a formal term referring to a record, the instance of an entity Organizing data 10/25/2012 6:19:00 AM First: identify each entity and it‟s individual attributes -entity: a person, object or event next, define each entity‟s attributes as a set of fields, each access entity is called a table, has a specific data type (in columns) field is a row enter values into your tables and store data as an access 2010 file group of related tables is a database primary key (PK) is a field or collection of field whose values uniquely identify each record in a table FK foreign key is a PK only used in one table A number is not a number when its not used for arithmetic expression, a student number would be entered as text Joined operation makes separate tables Pk must have unique values, no duplicates Must not have a null value For each non null fk value, a corresponding pk value must exist elsewhere Relationships 1:1 one to one (husband-wife) 1:m one to many (parent-child) n:m many to many (doctor-patient, supplier-customer) anomaly- a mistake multi-valued attribute, father-child example (13) normalization breaks things up and cleans them up 1nf-first normal form- no multivalued attributes 3nf is considered mandatory, no transitive dependencies Special Considerations 10/25/2012 6:19:00 AM -Isolation 1. DBA can create views for individuals/groups, to protect sensitive data (e.g., government records, client data, employee personal data, business operational data) Locking shared data -classic scenario= readers and writers problem protection -use passwords, capability controls, time controls, monitoring recovery -backup, transaction logging, checkpoints database design-schema views-“sub-schemas” a relational database system is fully relational if everything is represented in the form of relations Real-time operations -serialization- sequencing of operations, time stamping of transactions -update anomalies, lost updates _e.g., banking international transactions, stock markets, library book loans, air traffic control, hotel reservations, bus or taxi dispatching -scientific experiments (real-time data capture) -time zones DBMS (database management system) is a software program that lets you create databases and then manipulate data in them Creating a table in datasheet view Create tab on ribbon Click table button in the tables group -accept default id primary key field with the AutoNumber data type, or rename the field and change its data type Access 6-1 10/25/2012 6:19:00 AM try to skim through tutorial 2, then start doing yellow pages for tut 1,2 use wizard tools for forms, tweak it later compacting and repairing a database -compacting a database rearranges database objects and data to decrease the file size advanced compaction techniques ensure that objects within files are stored contiguously (next to each other) all gaps are eliminated, organized so it can run more quickly file menu>into tab>compact and repair schema- the overall picture of the database sub schema- the different views of the database design view, datasheet view are most important edgar codd -made 12 rules for a fully relational RDBMS -every piece of information must be stored in the form of tables, and therefore be accessible through queries, named tables, access fails this, is about 50% fully relational SQL- google what the acronym means Normalization?- a process designers use to eliminate unwanted anomalies, Getting rid of multi-valued attributes, 1NF=No multi valued attributes in tables 3NF=no transitive dependencies
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