Computer Science Notes: Information Presentations
IP – 2 – Graphic Elements
PG #405 – 464
What is a graphic?
Why use a graphic?
When is a graphic not suitable?
How do readers react to graphics?
Visual images: cartoon, logo, icon, photo, drawing, map, chart, symbol, shape,
banner, text box,…
o logo = hardest thing to design (simple, clear, communicates message)
o photo = hardest to incorporate, much detail
Attention, intro/summary, reinforcement, explanation, supplemental details,
“non-ballistic” control of reader’s focus
Wrong place/type/size, too simple/complex, distracts reader/audience
Eye motion influenced: interruption, pause/skip; Emotions … confusion,
frustration, “ah-hah” moments, relaxation, humour
4A-Information Presentation pp. 53-88
4B-Information Presentation pp. 135-160
Placement of graphic elements
Photo or illustration
Combining graphic elements
The role of a graphic
Tables and charts
Special graphic elements
PLACEMENT OF GRAPHIC ELEMENTS
Dynamic thirds: intersection points
Centering: subject v. border
Full page: complex or detailed
Repetition: rhythm v. control/attention
Intro v. Summary (beginning v. end)
Margins (simple, e.g., reminder, alert, index)
Bordered or floating
Titles, List of Figures
Textbook uses the term: “Rule of Thirds”
The eye and the brain have a strong connection. Powerful (negative and
positive) effects can be generated by visual stimuli.
Smooth integration of graphics with text is an art. It requires knowledge, practice,
patience and skill. PHOTO OR ILLUSTRATION?
Various file types (jpg, bmp, gif, …) and methods for incorporation within a
document, worksheet, web page, etc.
Photo should be cropped, properly positioned and have sufficient resolution.
Photo of reality adds credibility.
o opportunity for abstraction
o limit number of colours and amount of detail
Legalities: clip art, permission v. reference
COMBINING GRAPHIC ELEMENTS
Vertical, diagonal, horizontal
Static v. dynamic
o even/odd numbers of similar elements
o balance/contrast of different sizes/shapes
Facing pages: recto/verso
Sequence or series continuity
THE ROLE OF A GRAPHIC
Communication: e.g., “glance box”
Emphasis or attention
Summarize/organize information (charts)
Clarify/simplify complex concepts
Offer example(s): items in a list, bounds, alternative choices, quantity, specifics
Provide information visually: maps, charts
Relief for reader or audience
Hue (new word for COLOR!)
o principal colours = yellow, green, blue, purple, red
Chroma: the purity or saturation of a hue
Value: relative darkness of hue (darker=add black) -> A.K.A shade or tone
Colour wheel: colour relationships
Warm v. cool hues; “airy” v. “sombre”
Monochrome: shades (values) of one colour (hue)
B&W are “colours” too
Solid v. pattern: avoid monochrome pattern scheme
Earth tones v. “metallic” colours
Monochrome yields a “refined” look; one hue with neutrals = “sop