Class Notes (837,435)
Canada (510,273)
EARTHSC 1G03 (139)
Lecture

12 - Geologic Resources

5 Pages
121 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Earth Sciences
Course
EARTHSC 1G03
Professor
Maureen Padden
Semester
Fall

Description
12 – GEOLOGIC RESOURCES CASE STUDY ANALYSIS  Deltas: Very fertile areas - good soils; lots of organic content added as river floods and channels migrate across delta  Mississippi Delta: Mississippi river is diverting its flow to the Atchafalaya River and into New Orleans o Problem: It will abandon its current channel and migrate to Atchafalaya basin; could causes flooding and evacuation in New Orleans o A major flood could divert the main flow into the Atchafalaya River GEOLOGIC RESOURECES Geologic Resources are valuable materials of geologic origin extracted from the Earth  Energy resources: petroleum, coal, uranium, geothermal  Metallic resources: iron, copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, etc.  Non-metallic resources: sand, gravel, building stone, ground water, fertilizers, etc. Resources are the total amount of geologic material in all deposits, discovered/undiscovered. Reserves are the discovered deposits that can be economically/legally extracted currently.  Canada exports 30% of the energy it produces to the U.S.  2/3 of Canada’s energy is produced in Alberta  Most of Canada’s energy consumption is from fossil fuels (65%) ENERGY PETROLEUM Formation of energy:  Petroleum is crude oil and natural gas o Crude oil: liquid mixture of naturally occurring hydrocarbons o Natural gas: gaseous mixture of naturally occurring hydrocarbons  Hydrocarbons form from organic matter – dead life forms such as plankton –that accumulates w/ fine-grained sediment in marine or lake basins Locating Oil Pools for Extraction:  Formed oil and gas migrates into overlying permeable layers that are under low pressure  Oil pools: valuable underground accumulation of oil: 1. Marine organisms are compressed at depth from overlying sediments; organic-rich mud turns into black shale (source rock) 2. Under heat and pressure, kerogen forms. Kerogen turns to oil from temperature increase; if the conditions are right – the oil can turn into natural gas. 3. Reservoir rock (usually sandstone or limestone) that’s permeable and porous transmit the petroleum (ex. Sandstone)  Porosity: fluid storage capacity of rock or sediment  Permeability: ability to transmit that fluid 4. An oil trap, set of conditions to hold petroleum in reservoir rock and prevent its escape, is present.  Ex. Impermeable shale bed doesn’t allow oil to pass through Porosity and Permeability in Material:  Very fine sediments, like clay, can have high porosity but very low permeability.  Very coarse sediments can have relatively low porosity but excellent permeability.  Aquifer – body of sediment that is both porous and permeable o Oil displaces water b/c of its density TYPES OF PETROLEUM TRAPS: Structural traps:  Anticline – convex-side up, the oil is trapped at the top with gas just above it o Natural gas rises to above oil because of high pressure  Fault – traps occur when permeable reservoir rocks break and slide next to impermeable rocks  Salt dome - Stratigraphic traps:  Reef core – lime stone reefs form a variety ; core of reef is full of large openings formed by irregular growth of coral and algae where oil collects Oil fields:  Regions underlain by one or more oil pools  Largest producing oil field in Canada is in Alberta o Also most production in NA  Largest global oil sources: Middle East (Saudi Arabia and Kuwait), Russia, and Azerbaijan, Venezuela, and Mexico OIL SANDS  Oil sands: asphalt-cemented sand or sandstone deposits; asphalt is solid so oil is mined rather than drilled  Best oil sand deposit: Northern Alberta o 30% of oil production comes from there o National Energy Board estimates that by 2025, 70% of Canada’s oil production will come from Alberta asphalt/bitumen deposits  Extraction: (A) strip-mined and trucked to processing plants or (B) oil is mixed in place with hot water then pumped OIL SHALE  Black or brown shale with h
More Less

Related notes for EARTHSC 1G03

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit