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Volcano 2.docx

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McMaster University
Earth Sciences
Sergei Basik

Lecture 7  Krakataua, Indonesia – Famine and disesase combined deaths  Vesuvious, Italy – PDC deaths  Most cause of death is Famine and Disease, then Tsunami, then PDC  Cities pump water into volcano to cool it Tephra  Fine material of dust. Dust ash and cinders ejexted from volcano Volcanic Weather  Higher temperatures above an erupting volcano draws in outside air that rises and cools. Moisture in the air condenses to form rain Pyroclactic Density Currents  Dense micture of hot tephra and superheated gases that pour rapidly downslope  Welded Tuff: ash from a hot PDC that is hot enough when deposited that the particles fuse together to form a solid rock  White grey tephra  indicates high silica content  Lines – surge cross beds - layer of different ask layers  Part of island fell into ocean – Atlantis  Mt Hens – blast flattened tress on windward side of volcano  Lighter parts of PDC (gases) float and skim over the water as the denser mediums fall  Energy lines can show what regions can be affected by PDC  Height of hill where PDC will cover  Some explosions have PDC and other don’t because:  Collapse of dome  pushes PDC downhill  Continous eruptions w/ continous collapse  Entire volcanoes collapse  PDC oroduced  Landslide of bulge releases pressure off magma and initiating explosion  Tephra  Ashfall  venely covers area  Surge - thicker in valley regions (like mud)  AShflow  only In valleys; absent on hills Lahar  Mudflow associated with volcanic action or involving volcanic materials Potentia
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