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EARTHSC 2GG3 (199)


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Earth Sciences
Sergei Basik

Volcanoes Volcano and Lava Types  Higher Silica content  higher viscosity  more explosive  Lower silica content  lower viscosity  less explosive  Basalt lave = quiet eruptions; most oceanic volcanic and hawaiian made of this  Rhyolite = very explosive, rhyolite domes in Yellowstone park; whiteish grey  Ignious = rocks made from volcanic activity; lighter colour  Olivine – found in common lava in Hawaii  High viscosity = granite  Low viscosity = bubbles formed due to rapid cooling  Magma – molten rock  Lava- magma that flows onto ground surface Products of Volcanoes  lava  Pyroclactic Material – fragment of solidified magma blown out of volcano, fragments (small and large) may be deposited by pyroclactic density current PDC (hot flow and billowing tephra  Lahar – mudslide of volcanic material ; can bury buildings Basaltic Lava Forms  Low Viscosity Flow  Pahoehoe Flow: basalt lava with a ropy or smooth top ; flows quickly  High Viscosity FLow  Aa Flow: blocky basalt lava with a ragged, clinker surface Shield Volcanoes  Ones in Hawaii  Huge volcanoes, due to low viscosity lava  Largest type Mauna Loa and Kilauea, Hawaii  Eruption below sea level produce volcanoes ; basalt lava flows  Loose now became above sea level  Hotspot stays in same spot, but volcanoes moves w. crust and so older volcanoes are further away from the hotspot Mount Etna (Italy)  Most active volcano in Europe  Actively erupting since 1992  Erupts basalt lava continuously  Periodically erupts pyroclactic debis on more explosive eruptions  Latest eruption Jan 12 2011 Basalt Volcanoes Along Oceanic Ridges  At oceanic spreading centers hot mantle rock rises, and as it nears the surface, it partially melts erupting along the ridge as fluid basalt flows and pillow basalt formations  Pillow basalts – made as hot lava hits cool water body Flood Basalts  A broad expanse of basalt lava that cooled to fill in low-lying areas of the landscape  Flood basalt – basalt that spreads out over large area Pyroclactic Material  Pyroclactic : fragmental material blown out of a volcano (eg. tephra, cinders, and bomb
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