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Lecture 5

Earth Science - Lecture 5 Notes.docx

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Earth Sciences
Sergei Basik

Lecture 5 September 16, 2013 EARTHQUAKES: CAUSES AND CHARACTERISTICS Causes of Earthquakes  Plates are part of the crust  There can be long/short fractures in the crust  Faults can be boundaries between plates  Usually fractures are in the middle  Faults are classified by the way the rocks slide on either side: o Normal faults: slips below the normal level of land o Revers/Thrust faults: move up above the normal level of land o Strike-slip faults: move horizontally (not up or down) The Elastic Rebound Theory  Made by Henry F. Reid (1910)  Earthquakes involve an “elastic rebound” of previously stored elastic stress  Plates bend and it creates stress/strain  Stress and strain are released during the earthquake when the plate breaks Tectonic Environments of Faults  Earthquakes and faults are associated with plate boundaries  Strike/slip faults are associated with transform boundaries (tectonic boundaries)  Revers/thrust faults are associated with convergent boundaries (areas with huge earthquakes – plates coming together)  Normal faults are associated with divergent boundaries (plates going away from each other) Earthquake Waves  (Only know this slide – not what is in the textbook)  Two types of waves Body Waves  Primary Waves: o Push and pull the rock they go through o Happen in the crust not on the surface  Secondary Waves: o Slower o Can change the structure of th
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