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Lecture 11

Lecture 11.pdf

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Earth Sciences
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Sergei Basik

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Volcanoes Hazards and Mitigation Lecture 11 October 1 2013 1 Volcanic Hazards Millions of people live in risk of volcanic hazard a rich fertile soil for agriculture b beautiful vistas c climate appeals to retirees Hawaii Italy Few volcanic eruptions have potential to kill many people 11 Lava Flows Flowing basalt lava may cool blacken on outside but still be hot enough to ignite wood structures Objects that arent burned may be surrounded or buried by flow Lava flows pose little threat to human life Rare fluid lava flows fasterfrom Vesuvius killed 3000 people in 1631 Basaltic magma very rarely contains enough gas to blast out 12 Pyroclastic Flows and Surges Pyroclastic Flow is a mixture of hot volcanic ash and steam that flows downhill because too dense to rise Race down side of volcano at 50200 kmhr Form as part of eruption column collapse Ashrich shock wave surge may race ahead of pyroclastic flow up to 600 kmhr oHottest pyroclastic flows glow at 800850C hot enough to fuse into solid mass welded ashMost dangerous place bottom of valleyCan approximate travel distance of pyroclastic flow with energy line sloping downward from top of ashrich part of eruption columnActual hazard distance can be much greater if eruption is fueled by lateral blastPyroclastic flows can travel over surface of water
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