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Lecture 1

EARTHSC 2WW3 Lecture 1: chapter 1

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Earth Sciences

What is water? water is not an element o it is a compound made of 2 elements 2 hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen atom Properties include o strong covalent bond o weak hydrogen bond hydrogen bonds enable water to act as an excellent solvent o also means that water is present in liquid form over most parts of the earths surface Physical Properties Thermal properties o Most Dense at: 4 degrees Celsius o Upon freezing Expands by 9 hydrogen bonds form a strong structure o Specific Heat: the highest of any liquid 4200 joules of energy Second to ammonia o Evaporation is a crucial part of the water cycle and invisible water vapor is a very powerful Greenhouse Gas water vapor acts as a good greenhouse gas Surface Tension o common to liquid, not unique to water o Why it happens? molecules are attracted in all directions At the surface of the liquid, no molecules outside so molecules are only pulled inwards o Without Gravity water would form into a sphere force pulling the liquid inwards is greater than the gravitational force of most objects o Surface tension is greatest of all liquids that are not metals o What does Detergent do? makes the water reduce its surface tension and therefore allows a substance to be wetted by spreading water o Capillary Actions: water can flow upwards gravity doesnt matter virtual for plant growth Chemical Properties o excellent solvent o pure water doesnt occur readily in nature as it dissolves with other substances that it comes in contact with Will dissolve a substance if molecules interact Salt (NaCl) water can rip this apart Substances that are electrically neutral (oil) dissolve poorly in water Water and Its Importance for Life Carbon Dioxide + water + light energy glucose + oxygen + water Plants need water for food and at times, structural support Humans are made up of 70 water
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