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Earth Sciences
John Macclean

xWater and the Environment Water Cycle How many days does water spend in atmosphere?  water spends 9 days in the atmosphere What happens to water as it falls to the gorund:?  A. Interception o Ppt.caught prior to reaching the ground may eventually reach the ground o Amount of inrception  Vegetation type  Land use  Season  Ppt intensity  Ppt magnitude  Initial conditions (if its raining hard, interception is less) What happens to water as it reaches the gorund  o Snow or ice  C. o Water that movies across Amount of runoff is depend upon  Slope angle  Substrate material (alot of water is coaught in ice age ) (gravel, water sinks in, concrete water doesn’t sink in it flows across it) (faster moving of water less intertate it into the gorund D.Evaotpriton Amount of evaporation dependent upon  Temperature  Initial conditions  Wind Amount of transpiration dpendnd upon  Type of vegetation  Season  Wind  Inital conditions Early uses  You ahd to go to the water, Pic, hill  A qanat  Water table when you dig in sand, and water, that’s the water table  Qanat: Dig a serious of wells to amke a tunnel, majority is coming underneath, then move it to farmland Diagram:  shadoufRock of how people move water  Tambour: cramk a wheel water would come out  Saqai: Walkerton  Farm had cow poop and it rained and htne went ot farm people got sick  Dont have to memorize table yar, extent table - 1 one Map:  Improved drinking water: potable water , or not straight form well  Low GDP low sanitatiton levels, means more sickness What does it tell us:  Ther eare more people without safe water nd sanitiaton than there wer ein 20000  Over 2 billion people live in acountry withsevere water stress and 75% of thsoeare classfified as water scarce  By 2025 2.5 billion in water scarce regions What is the visual correlation  See any trends o Morewater less growth o Sub-sahara less water  In 1978 Canada predicted water shortages in the country by 2000 o Is itt coming true? o Does anyone know of a city with an issue Why does wehre people live matter  More people live in urbanized areas Agriculature/industry  Agriulcutre is the greatewt use of water worldwide,accounting for an estimated ... o External—about 16% of Whrer does the water go?  What is teh external water footprint o Food that gets traded away  Irrigation easily doubles crop yield o 18% of cropland is irrigated (with most in Asia) o Accounts for 40% of crops What about industry  Its decreasing though  (39% )  Need cold water to cool reactions What is peak water  Examples o Exploting groundwater that is not recharged o Faster extraction taht recharge rates o Water Economcis When the well’s dry  D
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