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Class Notes for Earth Sciences at McMaster University

EARTHSC 2WW3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Physical Water Scarcity, Economic Water Scarcity, Water Scarcity

Envirosci 2WW3 Thursday January 10 , 2019 Lecture 1 Water Scarcity Water scarcity: the point at which the total impact of all users (people or institutions) affects the quantity or quality of water under prevailing institu...

Earth Sciences
EARTHSC 2WW3
Rodrigo Perez
EARTHSC 2GG3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Viscosity
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find more resources at oneclass.com o Japan, Mexico, Philippines, Indonesia o Western North America Volcanic Hazards Primary effects o F Secondary effects o F ...

Earth Sciences
EARTHSC 2GG3
N.Mc Laughlin
EARTHSC 2GG3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Lateral Eruption
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o Lahars- large amounts of loose volcanic ash and other pyroclastic material become saturated with water and rapidly move downslope Mt. St. Helens Prior to erupting in 1980, it was dormant for 120 years In March, 1980- a b...

Earth Sciences
EARTHSC 2GG3
N.Mc Laughlin
EARTHSC 2GG3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Tephra, Basalt, Subduction
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Cinder Cone Volcanos Small volcanos Built from small pieces of red or black basalt Found on the flanks of larger volcanoes, along some normal faults, and along cracks or fissures Tephra from extinct cinder cones is the lav...

Earth Sciences
EARTHSC 2GG3
N.Mc Laughlin
EARTHSC 2GG3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Silicate Minerals, Dacite, Divergent Boundary
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Chapter 5 Notes- Volcanoes and Volcanic Eruption Introduction Most active volcanoes are located near plate boundaries Mid-ocean ridges and subduction zones are sites where molten rock reaches the surface o is molten rock o...

Earth Sciences
EARTHSC 2GG3
N.Mc Laughlin
EARTHSC 2GG3 Lecture 4: Lecture 4 part 3
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o Rayleigh waves- rolling waves, elliptical motion Earthquake Shaking: Distance to the Epicenter and Focal Depth Seismographs record arrivals of waves to station sites P waves and S waves travel at different rates and arri...

Earth Sciences
EARTHSC 2GG3
N.Mc Laughlin
EARTHSC 2GG3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Thrust Fault, Seismic Wave, Love Wave
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When stress or rocks exceeds their strength, the resulting rupture produce seismic waves Fault Types- Dip Slip Vertical movement Three types of dip slip faults based on which way the bounding earth materials move Walls on ...

Earth Sciences
EARTHSC 2GG3
N.Mc Laughlin
EARTHSC 2GG3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Igneous Rock, Continental Crust, Canadian Shield
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Research projects like SAFOD help gain better understanding of earthquakes and potentially better predictions Earthquake warning systems o Current warning systems provide 15 seconds to 1 minute of warning Perceptions of an...

Earth Sciences
EARTHSC 2GG3
N.Mc Laughlin
EARTHSC 2GG3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: Peak Ground Acceleration, Seismometer
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Human Interaction with Earthquakes The weight from water reservoirs may create new faults or lubricate old ones Liquid waste disposals deep in the Earth can create pressure on faults Pumping of oil and gas and hydraulic fr...

Earth Sciences
EARTHSC 2GG3
N.Mc Laughlin
EARTHSC 2GG3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 4: New Madrid Seismic Zone, Cascadia Subduction Zone, Peak Ground Acceleration
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Thrust earthquakes o Faults separating converging plates o Ex Cascadia subduction zone Normal fault earthquakes o Occur on diverging plate boundaries o Ex Mid Atlantic Ridge Intraplate Earthquakes Earthquakes that occur wi...

Earth Sciences
EARTHSC 2GG3
N.Mc Laughlin
EARTHSC 2GG3 Lecture 4: Lecture 4 part 1
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find more resources at oneclass.com Lecture 4 Notes What is an earthquake? Earthquake- motion or trembling of the ground caused by the sudden displacement of a rock The Toll of...

Earth Sciences
EARTHSC 2GG3
N.Mc Laughlin
EARTHSC 2GG3 Lecture 2: Lecture 2 part 4
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Rates of Plate Motion Plates move a few centimetres per year Although the central portions of plates move at a steady rate, movement may not be steady at plate boundaries Plates can displace by several meters during a grea...

Earth Sciences
EARTHSC 2GG3
N.Mc Laughlin
EARTHSC 2GG3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Continental Crust, Oceanic Crust, Outer Core
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Lecture 3 Notes Internal structure of the Earth Earth is layered and dynamic The internal structure of earth can be considered in two fundamental ways: o By composition (what is it made of), state (liquid or solid), and de...

Earth Sciences
EARTHSC 2GG3
N.Mc Laughlin
EARTHSC 2GG3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Plate Tectonics, Oceanic Crust, Continental Crust
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Oceanic crust underlying todays ocean basins is less than 200 million years old whereas some continental crust is up to 7 billion years old Convection Earths internal heats causes magma to heat up and become less dense The...

Earth Sciences
EARTHSC 2GG3
N.Mc Laughlin
EARTHSC 2GG3 Lecture 2: Lecture 2 part 3
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Crust is destroyed along other plate edges o Subduction zones The rate of production of new lithosphere at spreading centeres is balanced by consumption of lithosphere at subduction zones Sinking Plates Generate Earthquake...

Earth Sciences
EARTHSC 2GG3
N.Mc Laughlin

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