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Lecture

EARTHSC 2GG3 Lecture Notes - Kilauea, Hawaii, Flood Basalt, Lava Dome


Department
Earth Sciences
Course Code
EARTHSC 2GG3
Professor
Sergei Basik

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Volcanoes
Volcano and Lava Types
Higher Silica content higher viscosity more explosive
Lower silica content lower viscosity less explosive
Basalt lave = quiet eruptions; most oceanic volcanic and hawaiian made of this
Rhyolite = very explosive, rhyolite domes in Yellowstone park; whiteish grey
Ignious = rocks made from volcanic activity; lighter colour
Olivine found in common lava in Hawaii
High viscosity = granite
Low viscosity = bubbles formed due to rapid cooling
Magma molten rock
Lava- magma that flows onto ground surface
Products of Volcanoes
lava
Pyroclactic Material fragment of solidified magma blown out of volcano, fragments (small and
large) may be deposited by pyroclactic density current PDC (hot flow and billowing tephra
Lahar mudslide of volcanic material ; can bury buildings
Basaltic Lava Forms
Low Viscosity Flow
Pahoehoe Flow: basalt lava with a ropy or smooth top ; flows quickly
High Viscosity FLow
Aa Flow: blocky basalt lava with a ragged, clinker surface
Shield Volcanoes
Ones in Hawaii
Huge volcanoes, due to low viscosity lava
Largest type
Mauna Loa and Kilauea, Hawaii
Eruption below sea level produce volcanoes ; basalt lava flows
Loose now became above sea level
Hotspot stays in same spot, but volcanoes moves w. crust and so older volcanoes are further away
from the hotspot
Mount Etna (Italy)
Most active volcano in Europe
Actively erupting since 1992
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