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Lecture 7

Earth Science-Lecture 7 notes- Trading Water & Justice.pdf

Earth Sciences
Course Code
Luc Bernier

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Trading Water and Justice
1) 4What is the name of the hurricane, expected to make landfall in the next few hours?
a. Rosemary
b. Sandy
c. Laura
d. Stacy
Part 1 - Water Exports
Water Exports
Have expanded suddenly with the development of the bottled water industry
Water exports have expanded suddenly with the development of the bottled water
This has been accompanied by the growth of bulk shipping which with the use of
commissioned oil tankers although now the sipping is done in large plastic containers
For instance as part of an agreement with Israel certain countries ship water in large
Bottled Water Consumption
Either in bottles, or large containers: varies markedly from region to region
As illustrated by this map of the world each region is identified by their water
consumption in billion litres per year either the total value, the natural water
consumption, the treated water consumption, small volumes and in bulk over 10 L
Western Europe is the largest overall consumer with a per capita consumption of 104
In comparison Eastern Europe consumes only 17L/year/person
The lowest per capita worldwide consumption is found in Asia; 8 L/year/person which
reflects the overall levels of effluents
Virtual Water
International“real”watertradingis:a drop in the ocean in comparison to virtual water
that is being traded
All food stuffs that are traded require water to produce them
Water is needed to grow crops and to provide for animals to drink

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Trading Water and Justice
It is also used in food processing
A country that is importing its food is usingothercountry’swaterandsavingitsown
This picture illustrates the amount of water needed to produce each one of these products
Virtual Water and Everyday Products
Growth of international trading represents also: growth of virtual water trading
Almost every produced used as used water in its production process
Water is required to product shirts, cars, shoes and paper
This has important geopolitical ramifications
The internal security of a country that is water poor may be increased by importing foods
and goods
Such a country might become dependent on foreign suppliers that might cease trading
Exports/Imports of Water
European Union is the largest importer and exporter of water
The trade in real water with the European union has increase 7 times since 1960
The European union exports almost twice of what it imports
These maps show the volumes of water being traded in millions of litres

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Trading Water and Justice
Exports of French Bottled Water
Driven by the taste for bottles water a few large players dominate the bottled water
Many European countries are involved in this trade
o Especially France
This is a large industry exporting millions of litres of water per year and it dominated by
world player s such as Evian and Perrier
World Exports/Imports of Water
U.S.: main water trading partner of Canada
At the world scale outside of Europe we notice that the US are the main water trading
partner of Canada
Canada exports 8 times more water than it imports
U.S.: imports 10 times than it exports
This map shows the volumes of water being traded by each country per year in millions
of litre focusing on imports rather than exports
The US are net importers
Australia has a similar ratio of imports to exports
o The volumes involved are however 10 times smaller
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