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Hannah Holmes

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th LEC05 Sep 27 2010 Social and Cultural Dimension of Population Change ** rd pg 127-149, 151-158 1. How do populations grow or decline? 2. What roles do social/ cultural factors play in population? [different rates in different locations] 3. What other factors affect population change? FERTILITY -measured by crude birth rate CBR [total live births per 1000 ppl in one year] See fig. 4.1 pg 129 OBSERVATIONS:  Higher birth rates in Africa  First world countries have low CBR  Countries along the tropics higher CBR  Colder regions lower CBR FACTORS AFFECTING FERTILITY Biological factors -role of age: reproductive years of men VS women -role of nutritional well-being: poor health status of population related to lower fertility Economic factors **Why does fertility go down when nutrition improves? -fertility is related to economic development and as development increases, fertility decreases Cultural factors -marriage rate [what is the average age men/women marry at?] -contraceptive use: availability, cost, attitude (religious beliefs) -in general, variation in fertility is closely tied to ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT and affects social/cultural conditions -lower levels of economic development=HIGHER FERTILITY MORTALITY -measured by crude death rate CDR [total deaths/1000 ppl in one year] See fig. 4.3 pg 136 OBSERVATIONS: -countries with inadequate health care systems have higher CDR -areas with less warfare/military conflicts have lower CDR FACTORS AFFECTING MORTALITY World Health Organization identifies 850 specific causes of death, generally reflects socio- economic status (lower human development=higher mortality rate, VICE VERSA IS TRUE for life expectancy as well) Contrasts with fertility, affected by
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