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ECON 1B03 (523)

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Hannah Holmes

The Disappearing Male - In the last 50 years, sperm counts worldwide have been cut in half - Rates of male infertility and sperm abnormalities have increased while testicular cancer rates have doubled - Belief for this cause is manmade chemicals that interfere with male hormonal system - 90000 manmade compounds developed in last 60 years which of many have not been tested on humans - Bisphenol A makes plastic hard while phthalates make plastics soft - A typical young man produces half the sperm his father did while 85% of it is abnormal - WHO standard for classifying men for being infertile have dropped (now at 20 million per millilitre) - Three things used to assess sperm quality: volume (sperm count), speed (motility), morphology - Male alligators in the lakes of Florida, have sexual organs that are of their normal size and 1/3 reproduction rate is 90% below average - Abnormality of the testes related to low testosterone levels similar to females and had smaller penis sizes - Endocrine system: testes, pancreas, adrenal glands, thymus, thyroid gland, pituitary gland, pineal gland - Stimulate growth, regulate metabolism and control reproduction - The glands release hormones that are bodies chemical messengers such as testosterone which when blocked permanently damages male sexual development - Plastic –revolutionary all chemicals were derived from one source, petroleum - Most serious effects are to unborn children because effects are permanent and fetus has few defences against chemicals - At first placenta was believed to be a protective barrier - Undifferentiated (5 weeks), partially developed (10 weeks) , full developed (34 weeks) - After seventh week of pregnancy, male reproductive e tract begins to develop - Breast feeding further exposes child to chemicals, in which blood or urine sample show contaminants
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