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Lecture 3

Lecture 3.docx

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Jeff Racine

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Lecture 3 Graph types Core graphs Two- dimensional graphs Examples: histograms, scatter diagrams, etc. Specialty graphs Combine elements from core graphs to display data in unique ways Examples: bar graphs, pie charts, etc. 3D graphs Display data of 3 variables with height, width, and depth Frequency Histograms Frequency Histograms Horizontal axis Identifies upper and lower limits of data classes Vertical axis Shows number of observations in each class (absolute frequencies) Shows ratio of class frequency to class width (relative frequencies) Rectangles Represent corresponding class frequencies by area or by height (if all class intervals are alike) In R we use the hist() function (hist(,prob=TRUE) for relative frequencies divided by the class width) Frequency Polygons and Density Estimators Frequency Polygons Portray frequency distributions as many-sided figures Class mark = average of two class limits Final point on horizontal axis lie ½ length below the lowest (or above the highest) class limit Density Estimator Portray frequency distributions as smooth curves Remove irregularities from histograms depicting information gathe
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