Standards: are a type of command-and control (cac) technique, also known as direct regulation. These types of regulations where a type of behaviour is determined to be desirable and a law is brought in to mandate this behaviour: eg. Emission standard is a maximum rate of emissions that is legally allowed. A governing body simply makes it illegal to emit past a certain level and uses courts, fines, and other law enforcement measures to ensure compliance. E*= 40 units, located where md=mac, this is the socially efficient level of pollution and may be the one that a policy sets as the maximum pollution level. Emitters pay the abatement costs to abate the. However, the standards approach is more complex than it first may appear. There are three types of environmental standards: ambient standards, emission standards, technology standards. Canada uses each of these standards across different industries to control pollution.