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Taxation - England.doc

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McMaster University
Jack Leach

England ●In the 15th century the English king is weak – The War of the Roses replaces the Plantagenet dynasty with the Tudor dynasty – Henry Tudor becomes Henry VII ● Henry rules a divided country; he needs the cooperation of the House of Commons, composed of merchants and landowners He liked to marry, many, many times. He wanted a son for an heir to his throne. He got into conflict with the church and created his own church (the church of England). His country became very divided. He was not able to gain control over taxation. ● Henry VII is succeeded by Henry VIII, whose succession of wives brings him into conflict with the Pope. – He abolishes the Catholic Church in England, dissolves the monasteries, seizes their property, and establishes a new church with himself at the head – These actions also divide the country, so he must be still more careful with the House of Commons ● There are no external threats, so the House will not grant the king much latitude ● The English king cannot gain the same absolute power over taxation as his French counterpart – Reliance on revenue from grants of monopoly and other policies that yield short term gains ● The Tudors attempted to set up the same kind of intensive industrial legislation as the French. This legislation paralysed French industry but did not have the same effect in England. – The statutes covered existing industries but not new ones, so it might actually have encouraged innovation – Industry moved to the countryside, where guild power was weak – In expanding industries the need for labour was so great that regulations were simply ignored The French King made wealth from monopolies. − Enforcement in the countryside was left to the local Justice of the Peace, who were likely to ignore rules that were disadvantageous to local interests ● The strategy of moving to the countryside to evade guild power and other restrictions was as successful in England as it was in the Netherlands ● The last Tudor is Elizabeth I (1558-1603). (The Virgin Queen)| – Supports the break-away Dutch, encourages English sailors to raid Spanish shipping – Dies childless
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