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ECON 3R03 (26)
Jack Leach (26)


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McMaster University
Jack Leach

3K03 Zahra Haidari 04/04/2013 Transportation ● Idea of the railroad originates with Richard Trevithick, inventor of the high pressure engine – Initially, railway cars were pulled by horses in industrial complexes; later, the horses were replaced by engines – The idea of a railroad as a public transportation device took two decades to successfully implement – Meteoric growth between 1825 and 1850 ● Sailing ships equipped with auxiliary steam engines and paddlewheels – 1833: first steam powered crossing of the Atlantic - After World War 2, all the sailing ships were gone. - These were paddle wheel ships - Modern ships have propellers ● Innovations: screw propeller (designed by the French mathematician Bernoulli), the “marine” steam engine, shift to steel hulls – Oak hulls: maximum length = 250 feet – Resistance increases with the square of the length, volume with the cube of the length, so greater size is advantageous - Propeller made paddle wheel obsolete - More efficient to have a big as ship as possible - Energy efficiency requires big ships! - Ships become very large – 1858: Brunel's Great Eastern is 700 feet long The Great Eastern Brunel = Paddle wheel steamery ● Speedier ships – 1800: London-Calcutta return can take two years – 1840: 12 weeks – 1914: 4 weeks – Freight rates decline by .9% per year from 1800 to 1850, 1.5% per year from 1850 to 1900Steam-boat off a Harbour Mouth J. M. W. Turner -> steam boat at sea ● 1855: modern bicycle (wheels of equal size, chain drive) appears You walk your bicycle in 1818 and by 1885, even ladies can ride them! ● 1859, Belgium: Jean-Etienne Lenoir builds first internal combustion engine - Run on alcohol - Gasoline has not yet been discovered
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