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Lecture 3

ENVIRSC 1A03 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Middle Latitudes, Earth'S Energy Budget, Humid Continental Climate


Department
Environmental Science
Course Code
ENVIRSC 1A03
Professor
Luc Bernier
Lecture
3

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Variations in Surface Temperature
How does the Earth move around the Sun?
- Earth's distance to the Sun changes as it orbits around it
- December 21st --> closest, June 21st --> farthest
- Earth also rotates about its axis
- equinox --> when the sun is directly over head
How does Earth's tilt influence the Seasons?
- The seasons are the result of the tilt of the Earth's axis.
-Since the axis is tilted, different parts of the globe are oriented towards the Sun at different times of the
year
How does Daily Insolation vary during the Year?
- changes in insolation greatest: toward poles
What are the world latitude zones
- based on seasonal patterns of: daily variation of insolation
How does annual insolation vary by Latitude? --> the closer you are to the equator...
- what would happen to Earth's radiation budget if the Earth was not tilted? --> greater loss of energy at
high latitudes
Continentality
- Coastal locations have lower temperature ranges than locations inland --> takes water longer to heat
up/cool down
- need a lot more energy to heat up water
Thermal Properties of Water
- the hydrogen bonds contain a lot of energy
- there is more penetration down water than there is on land surface
- there is mixing of water, but soil is unable to mix
- heat capacity of water > soil, it takes more energy to raise the temperature of water by a degree
- more evaporation over water than over land --> more latent heat released
Factors which influence local temperatures
- urban areas --> albedo of asphalt is very low (dark surfaces tend to absorb radiation and increase temp)
- elevation --> higher you are, the lower the temperature
- location --> inland or coastal?
- ocean currents --> warm/cold currents will heat up/cool down areas
How does temperature change worldwide?
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