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Lecture 10

ENVIRSC 1G03 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Seismic Wave, Shear Stress, Transform Fault


Department
Environmental Science
Course Code
ENVIRSC 1G03
Professor
Maureen Padden
Lecture
10

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ENVIRSC / EARTHSC 1G03
Dr. Padden
Lecture 10: Earthquakes I
Earthquakes
Earthquakes are shock waves, or vibrations, within the earth
o Triggered by the sudden slippage of rock along fault planes in the crust
or mantle
o Cause: release of accumulated
strain
* energy
* Strain: the deformation that an object undergoes in response to
stress
(force/unit area)
o Ex. Bending a stick; with too much tension, the stick will snap
Local stress is usually caused by regional:
o Shear stress transform boundaries
Strike-slip faults tend to be vertical
o Tensional stress pulling apart
Footwall \ Hanging wall
o Compression stress (in crust) squished together
Footwall / Hanging wall
Strain energy accumulates at roughspots on the plates
Foreshocks: small, early quakes as rocks begin to fracture
Aftershocks: rocks along fault adjust and transfer strain
Seismic Waves
Seismic waves are the result of the energy released during earthquakes.
o This energy:
Pulverizes rocks
Generates heat
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