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Walter Peace

Geo Notes Nov. 6 th The Concentric Zone Model of Urban Form Norton Ch. 12, pp. 447-480, 482-486
 1. Why do cities look the way they do? 2. 
2. How do urban land uses sort themselves out? Key Concepts:
- Land use types: categories of urban activities i.e. industrial; commercial; residential; institutional; open space/recreational
- Central business district (CBD): central nucleus of commercial land uses in the city; point of highest accessibility 
- Zone in transition: area of mixed commercial, residential, industrial land uses surrounding the CBD - So what do our cities look like?
- And what role does culture play in shaping urban form?
- Three classic models – see Fig. 12.2, page 478 Concentric Zone Model
⇒ Based on early 20th century Chicago
⇒ Ernest Burgess (1925)
⇒ City viewed as series of concentric zones of distinctive neighborhoods/land uses formed by successive waves of immigrants arriving in the city
⇒ Chicago – “shock city”
⇒ A socio-ecological model of the city
** Ideal Concentric Zone Model (Looks like two bulls-eye with the right being split in half by a squiggly line (looks like Fig. 2.1 – Concentric Zone Model) (refer to slides) →Spatial pattern of social groups resulted from “invasion and succession, i.e. groups occupying urban neighborhoods change over time as one immigrant group replaces another immigrant group in a neighborhood
→Ongoing process; any given neighborhood will be occupied by a series of different immigrant groups Where in the city did invasion and succession occur?
- Process begins with arrival (invasion) of an immigrant group in inner city neighborhoods
- These locations featured low cost housing and close proximity to employment in CBD
- Inner city viewed as a “reception” area (point of arrival)
- Over time, neighborhoods become populated by one dominant ethnic group (“succession”) - Later, original residents move out of their old neighborhood into a new suburban neighborhood (thus beginning a new round of ‘invasion and succession’)
- Biological analogy (plant communities) leads to a city viewed as being 
compromised of ‘natural areas’ 
- This research became known as the ‘Chicago School of Urban Ecology’ 
(Robert Park; Ernest Burgess, Harvey Zorbaugh) Criticisms of the Chicago School
1. Based almost entirely on City of Chicago
2. Tends to ignore cultural dimensions of social organization
3. Biologica
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