Class Notes (807,235)
Canada (492,664)
Geography (876)
GEOG 1HA3 (328)

1HA3 Notes

13 Pages
Unlock Document

McMaster University
Michael Mercier

Geographies of Health and Health Care Feb 1, 13 ← Consider: We all have own geographies. Everyone’s health circumstances differ. The geography of where you live and the risks associated with that impacts your risk of health and risk of disease. Our access to basic resources is also spatially differentiated. Also, the provision of health care services varies from one location to another. Even is Hamilton one person lives very close to a clinic or doctors office or some don’t even have a family doctor or a nearby clinic, etc. So overall where you live effects the kinds of treatments which you can get and the speeds at which you can get these treatments. CHANGING PRESPECTIVE Traditional medical geography was interested in spatial set up of disease. Where as today, health geography is about spatial context of health and well being. The difference is that the WHO’s definition for health is the absence of disease. Whereas today, the definition of health is the composite of physical, social and emotional well-being. It does not only include if you are sick but overall how you feel emotionally, physically, etc. APPLIED TO HEALTH Health geographers do the following four Ds -Distribution: spatial patterns of health and disease. e.g. malaria, health disease, etc. A map can annotate where there is more of that illness, etc. Another way which these maps can be utilized is how Dr John Snow did so, the epidemiology. -Diffusion: This is the spread of disease over a space. e.g. The case of H1N1 and how its spread on a map. -Determinants: The factors which effect individual health status. Such factors are income, behavioral factors (exercise, smoking), social environment, genetics, etc. -Delivery: The delivery of health care services and resources. What is available to the individuals in order to improve there health status. USA uses most money on health care however the share between public and private is huge. They spend more on private than public. Canada spend very less on private expenditures and most of public, etc. We can think about epidemic: A temporary and spatially wide spread outbreak of a particular disease. A pandemic is the same thing however it is an epidemic of greater scale and proportion. H1N1 was nearing this as the volume of people effected was very great and it was wide spread. World Health Organization has Pandemic Phases (ex country code red type codes) Epidemiology connects to an academic discipline which connects to health and statics and geography. And studies the incidents and transmission of disease and how it can be controlled. They are mostly concerned about infectious diseases and how widespread they are. The Epidemiological transition: changing prevalence of infectious and degenerative diseases. It suggest that there two age, 1. Age of pestilence and famine and2 is the age of degenerative diseases and this is where we are currently situated. Within those stages there are sets of stages within them. *Today since we have controlled infectious diseases we are more prone to getting degenerated diseases such as cancer. Before hand people did not die form degenerated diseases because they would die of infectious diseases first and there life was not long enough. In stage 1 infectious diseases, stage 2 degenerated diseases are most common. Infectious Disease Stages: ??? ← -Stage 1-2: Begins to happen at steady rate -Stage 3-4: begins to die down -Stage 5: Defining Culture & Cultural Geography Feb 5, 2013 ← *Read chapter 6. We have a certain routine everyday and it reflects our culture. Such as what we wear, what we eat, etc. These cultural attributes vary based on religion, language spoke, ethnicity, origin, age, gender and individuals personality. Would we see the same results if we did this in a university in a different university, or a senior home, etc, Probably not. How familiar would you be to a person’s culture in which you have not been raised in or are familiar with. If it is a person from South Africa in Canada the difference is very big. But what about someone from London, England to Canada. Culture is a way of life of the members of a society. In some cases the variation is quite small like England vs Canada, whereas somewhere like Pakistan vs Canada would have a huge variation. Is there a distinct Canadian culture? Or do we share with other. The logical question then is what is the difference between the Canadian and American culture. There are many things we share. We have the same language, form of government, economic system, religions in the country, interest in pop culture such as sports, music (although there is some variation). However, our cultural symbols are different, our role in global politics are different. Hence, does North America have one or more North American culture. Consider sub culture (somewhat different from the norm, but a part of the larger culture). -Teenagers (subcultures within teens even, -> (goths, punks, skate boarders) -Homosexuals Cultural Geographers: Spatial distribution of cultural activities, their hearth, and the process of diffusion across space. When we think about culture within human geography. We are interested in two main components. Non material and material forms of culture. -> Non-Material Culture 1. Mentifacts – Key attitude elements/values. Thought to us when we’re children such as language, religion. 2. Sociofacts: Norms involved in group formation. E.g. meet an elder person and you call them mr. _____. These are just stuff we learn they are not written anywhere. -> Material Culture -Artifacts – All the tangible elements related to how people live their lives. E.g. car, clothes, tools etc. Within material culture we can think about the spread of culture from two different types of culture. 1. Folk Culture: cultural practices and material culture. Relatively small and relatively isolated cultural group and the isolation is the key parts of it, there material culture tend to be unique to them. They also tend to be homogeneous which is they tend to be much the same. 2. Popular Culture: Cultural practices and material culture. E.g. wearing jeans, or particular forms of music. The spatial distribution of both these kinds of cultures is very different. Pop culture has a wide spread distribution whereas folk is usually condensed in one place isolated. The level of interaction is key. Popular culture has high levels of interaction. There is a lot of influence today by media which help the spread of the pop culture but increasingly the world is becoming interconnected through globalization so they get exposed to popular culture. Cultural Region: An area with a degree of homogeneity in cultural characteristics. Spatial scale matters. In McMaster if we just look at the campus we see there are health sci area, business area, residence areas, etc. But if we look at Hamilton as a whole we see that those lines blur and McMaster becomes one entity. What is regionalization: It varies from person to person but it is similarities we see in a spatial area. Cultural Landscape: The outcome of interaction between people (societies) and their environments; the visible human imprint on the land. Cultural Landscape: Reflects human modification of the land, i.e urban and rural. Cultural regions and landscapes are interrelated. Cultural Adaptation: The adaptation (adjustment), by people and cultures to the challenges posed by the physical environment. For example the clothing choices we make in our culture reflect the environmental circumstances in which we live. We need to have clothes for winter and summer. Whereas tropical locations don’t have whether clothing variation. There homes are build like that as well as it is warmer there. And as cloture’s continue to evolve each culture begins to get slightly more different than other culture so evolves and adapts over time. Cultural adapations are not a one tiem thing it is a ever changing thing probably because the environment is constantly changing and adapts. Geography of Language Feb 12, 2013 ← *Reference chapter 6 Mother tongue is the language which you speak as an infant. What is the point of language as a cultural variable. It is intimately connected to cultural groups. Its how people differentiate themselves from other cultural groups. Language is being thought to you from day 1 even if you can not say anything back. The survival cultural
More Less

Related notes for GEOG 1HA3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.