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Lecture 6

GEOG 1HA3 Lecture 6: geo

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Michael Mercier

Midterm Review 2 branches of geography 1) Physical geography - Study of patterns + processes of the ​​physical world - Physical envi (landforms, climate, hydrology, geology, ecology) 2) Human geography - Study of patterns + processes of ​the ​human world Space 1) Absolute space​- mathematical location (earth/globe) - Most obvious way - Can measure it - objective, physically real with measurable extent and definable boundaries - Key for map making description + analysis (explanation) of spatial distributions - mathematical projections- actual/ measured distance, length, etc. Ex- mac campus - has boundaries + size of it can be measured 2) Relative space​- perceived location (map) - subjective/perceptual and variable (over time) - Locations identified by their relative positioning and importance - Distorts distance + relative positioning of things Ex- mac campus seeming large at first, but smaller + easier to get around w familiarity Ex- a topological map (scale, distance + positioning are guesstimates- TTC subway station map) Location 3) Nominal (and toponym) location (highway signs, map capital/city name) - Particular position in space 1) Absolute (mathematical) location - Latitude and longitude coordinates using an arbitrary mathematical grid- relatively unchanging 2) Relative (perceived) location - A short drive from downtown toronto and adjacent to cootes rd, etc. - Subject to change + interpretation 3) Nominal (and toponym) location - A place name - A location of significance is a given name - Names of places can provide a degree of locational understanding - Triggers this understanding - Place names can be contested Place - Location + cultural/human meaning = place - Location with a particular identity and meaning and significance (ind. And collective) Sense of place - positive and negative - The personally significant attachments we associate with certain places - Ex- childhood home= nostalgia, etc - Some places evoke a ‘sense of place’ even though you've never been there - Sense of place is reinforced by uniqueness (ex- traveling, buildings in italy, etc) Sacred place - Places that have a particularly strong meaning (often religious) to ind’s + groups Placelessness - Linked to homogeneity + standardization - Some places evoke little and no meaning whatsoever, we refer to these as being placeless Distance - absolute/ physical distance - Travel distance - economic / communication distance - Psychological distance Distribution​ : distance and spatial organization - Geographic phenomena can often be explained with reference to the distance between them + their spatial organization - 3 types- density, concentration/ dispersion, pattern 1) Density - Frequency with which something exists in a measured area 2) Concentration/ dispersion a) concentrated/ clustered (agglomerated) - How something is spread over an area - Objects are close together (small distance) b) Dispersed (scattered) - Objects are far apart 3) Pattern - The spatial arrangement of objects- linear, rectilinear, random, uniform/ ordered Geographic literacy: language/ terminology used to communicate in geography Regions ● Region: a part of the world that is different/ distinct form the rest; a part of earth's surface that displays internal homogeneity and is relatively distinct (different and heterogeneous) form surrounding areas according to some criteria/ criterion ○ Criteria may be: human geographic and physical geographic and a combination of both ○ Internal homogeneity (uniformity) vs. external heterogeneity (difference) ○ Ex- areas with uniform temperatures, uniform cultural practices and beliefs, etc. ● human/ cultural regions: ● physical/ natural regions: ● Regionalization: the process where we simplify our complex world and its human and physical geographic patterns and processes into regions ○ Locations on the earth's surface are assigned/ classified into various regions based on criterion ● Spatial scale/ perspective matters ○ What might be viewed as a region from one perspective may no longer be significant when viewed from another Landscape ● Regions are often defined/identified by their landscapes; the visible features of the land/ area ○ Landscapes can be natural/ physical and/or human/cultural, etc. ● Cultural landscape: the outcome of interactions between people and their envis; the visible human imprint on the land ○ Each cultural group imprints itself on the landscape in different ways ○ Many cultures = many distinct cultural landscapes ○ Each cultural group modifies their landscape to suit their needs; these difs can be slight + vast Diffusion ● The movement/ spread of a geographic phenomena across space and over time ● Two main ​forms​ of diffusion ○ 1) ​relocation​: spread of ideas, cultural characteristics, etc from one area to another through the physical movement of people's - Ex- immigrants ○ 2) ​expansion​: the spread of innovations within a single area via a snowballing process - Expansion diffusion: 2 main ​subtypes - 1) ​hierarchical​: ideas and innovations leapfrog form one important person to another, and form one city to another, temp. Bypassing others or rural areas in between - 2) ​contagious​: the rapid and widespread diffusion of a characteristic throughout the population Perception + mental mapping ● Much of our engagement with real envis (physical or human) actually occurs through a personal lens ○ Our experiences with these envis are determined by how we perceive them to be, rather than by how they actually are ○ Mental maps: a unique personal rep of reality ■ Unique to individuals ■ Imperfect knowledge: people only have imperfect knowledge of the envis where they live ○ Our perception of reality is what matters (our own mental map), not reality Map - 2D graphical rep of the world - Device used to communicate info + analyze spatial problems - Locations of towns + cities - The boundaries of your property - Distribution of poverty in Hamilton - Diffusion of contagious diseases - Maps are socially constructed - Maps reflect the power of the people that draw them - Read maps with a critical eye (look at maps like stats, make sure you get all important details) - Small scale maps contain missing and possibly important info Social + cultural history of maps + mapping - Solving spatial problems (ex- navigational maps) - Key to human survival - Maps reflect current knowledge - Maps create + reflect societal/ cultural anxieties (maps as art) - Maps are used as statements of power + authority (ex- british empire, “the sun never sets in the empire) Key considerations - Maps are like other forms of visual representation of data (ex- figures, tables, etc) - Key considerations in the production, and understanding (interpreting) of maps: 1) Scale 2) Perspective 3) Projection 4) Type 1) Scale - Indicates spatial relationship between real world locations, distances + areas, + their rep on the map - All maps are scaled reps of the real world - Scale is typically expressed as a ration or a rep fraction (ex- 1 cm on map= 50,000 cm in real world) - Large scale vs small scale ● Representative fraction ○ 1/50,000 is a small # (0.00002) ○ 1/250,000 is an even smaller # (0.000004) ○ Second is a smaller scale map than first ○ Second scale map portrays a much larger area ○ Large area = small scale ● Small scale maps show large areas + depict little detail ● Large scale maps show smaller areas + generally have greater levels of detail 2) Perspective - How is the map oriented? Are there tools to help me orient myself? (north arrow, compass rose, N at top) - “Antiopocentric” map (upside down) - Maps help us to look at the world from dif perspectives 1) Atlantic centric + the European world view 2) Pacific centric + the asian world view - There's no “correct” map perspective 3) Projection - Portraying a 3D sphere in 2D (peeling and orange in 1 piece, possible but not convenient) 4) Map type - Dif kinds of spatial data, and dif types of spatial analysis demand dif map types - Maps serve 2 primary purposes 1) The (accurate) rep of data 2) Solving spatial problems - Several dif map types are typically used to solve spatial problems - Dot maps: reveal patterns of spatial concentration (clustering) or dispersion - Choropleth maps: indicate graduated variations in data - Isopleth maps: current locations of equal data value - Cartograms: space is distorted to emphasize particular attributes Geographic info systems (GIS) - GIS: desktop computer based tech. - A powerful tool for analyzing complex spatial problems - Multiple layers - A rapidly growing field and an excellent career opportunity ● Maps are social constructions ● The importance of scale, perspectiv
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