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Department
Geography
Course
GEOG 1HA3
Professor
Michael Mercier
Semester
Fall

Description
Geography 1HA3 9/6/2013 12:31:00 PM Human Geography: Society and Culture Readings:  Read introduction  Skim chapter 1  Read chapter 2 o Skim pgs. 40-50 o Read pgs. 57-67 Key Concepts:  Space, Location & Place  Distance  Distribution (spatial) o Density, Concentration/Dispersion, Pattern Space:  Measure of areal extent (how far an area goes) o Two ways we measure this:  Absolute space = physically real  Definable boundaries  Objective  Most commonly seen in maps  Mathematical projections  Ex. Space of McMaster campus  Relative space  Subjective = open to interpretation  Will vary over time and from person to person  Not definable from one person to another  Topological maps (subway system) = distance between places/ direction do not really matter = getting from point A to point B  Distort directions and distances to express point of the map  Ex. McMaster campus being big, small, expansive, etc…  Ex. Room is cozy Location:  Refers to specific position in space  Types of location: o Absolute (mathematical) location:  GPS = latitude & longitude coordinates  Do not change  Can use topographic map o Relative location:  Subjective  Position relative to something else  McMaster is 3h away from Toronto o Nominal (or toponym) location:  A place name  Ex. Hamilton, Toronto, Southern Ontario  Can be contested = different groups use different names for areas  Ex. Iqaluit vs. Frobisher Bay = different name for same area  Gives locational understanding = “I know where that is!” Place:  Identity, meaning, significance o Can be to individual or to group  Ex. Catholic Church is important to Catholics  Ex. My home is important to me & my family (especially childhood house)  Location + cultural/human meaning o Might not have been there but you still know what it feels like there o Ex. feeling spiritual about a Church that isn‟t your own  Sense of place = why it is important & feelings that you get when you see the place o Local and regional characteristics = “flavour”  Ex. going to an Irish pub o Sacred places  Tend to be religious  Can be sacred based on their contribution to others (ex. the airport can be sacred to people) o Placelessness = places with little sense of place or none at all  Homogeneity & standardization  Ex. East Side Marios, Walmart, McDonalds, the suburbs Distance:  Amount of space between two or more locations  Types of distance: o Absolute/physical distance:  Measured by standardized units (ex. meters, paces, etc.) o Travel distance:  Distance for travelling (ex. an hour to Toronto)  Depends on mode of transport, traffic, etc… o Economic/communication distance:  Transporting distance, phone minutes, sending a package…  Measured in dollars o Psychological distance:  When you are intoxicated a walk might seem different than a walk when sober  Mindset in which you are travelling makes a difference Distribution:  Things in space are organized in different ways  Distance & organization  Three forms of distribution: o Density = frequency that the geographic phenomena exists within space  Ex. how many apartments within 5km area  Ratio measure o Concentration/dispersion = how something is spread over an area  Organization pattern  Can be:  Clustered (agglomerated) = all together  Ex. Chinese restaurants in China town  Dispersed (scattered) = spread out  Ex. universities spread out over southern Ontario  Dependent on spatial perspective o Pattern = how objects are arranged in space  Linear  Random  Uniform/ordered th Tuesday, January 15 , 2012 Key Concepts:  Regions  Landscapes  Diffusion  Perception & Mapping Readings: same as Friday Regions:  Part of earth‟s surface that displays homogeneity and is relatively distinct from surrounding areas according to some criteria/criterion o Internal homogeneity o External heterogeneity  People in the region behave similarly  Criteria: o Human geographic = ex. language o Physical geographic = ex. climate o Or a combination of both  Regionalization = simplifying complex world into regions o Locations are assigned into regions based on criteria o Produces spatial pattern  Spatial scale/perspective matters: o Ex. up the mountain or down the mountain, Westdale vs. being in Hamilton, when looking in Hamilton…would not be important when looking at important regions in Canada Landscapes:  Outcome of interactions between people and their environments; the visible human imprint on the land  Special characteristics of an area  Ways we impact the natural environment by modification o Each cultural group imprints itself on the landscape in a different way  Create different landscapes in different areas  Consider: Southern Ontario o Country-side/rural areas = very straight roads, cut across environment, divide land into rectangular fields, little town or village o Different than urban/suburban areas  Key: it is HUMAN impact on the natural environment Diffusion:  Movement of a geographic phenomena across space over time o Ex. spread of a disease (such as a pandemic)  2 main forms: o Relocation = spread of ideas, cultural characteristics, etc. from one area to another through physical movement by people  Ex. immigration = bring language, religion, music, food, fashion, etc.  Ex. consider Hamilton surnames in certain areas  British = Jones, Smith  Italian = Mancini, De Luca  Portuguese = Silva, Santos  Vietnamese = Nguyen, Pham o Expansion = spread of innovations within a single area in a snowballing process  Couple people spread word to a couple people, etc…  3 subtypes:  Hierarchical = Ideas or innovations leapfrog from one important person to another, or from one city to another, temporarily bypassing other people or rural areas in between  Do not spread evenly from one person to the next  Ex. goes from New York to California, then to Florida, then to Denver, etc.  Contagious = the rapid and widespread diffusion of a characteristic throughout the population  Ex. disease, video going viral  Does not depend on the person  Stimulus = spread of an underlying principle, even though a characteristic itself fails to diffuse  Ex. Apple vs. IBM when computers came out o 1990s IBM takes over market  Apple basically was left behind but mouse clicking still existed  People used some features of Apple but did not use the computers themselves  Innovations spread over area  Can be socially diffused = look at iPod graph Perception and Mental Mapping:  Much of our engagement with real physical or human environments actually occurs through a personal lens o Experiences are actually how we perceive them to be, rather than how they actually are o Determines how we interact with environment o Mental map = personal representation of reality  Imperfect knowledge = based only on how we think of world to be  Different between different people  Perceptions drive behaviors  Ex. taking different paths to school in order to avoid certain obstacles th Friday, January 18 , 2013 Key Concepts:  What are maps? o Scale o Perspective o Projection o Map type  GIS Reading: Chapter 2 Maps:  Two dimensional representation of the world  Depict spatial relationships  Communicate information to us o What is where? Why there? Why care? o Analyze spatial relationships (distribution, patterns, processes that produce those)  Socially constructed = reflect perspective of the person/people who produces them = cartographer o Influence or instate power o Means we need to look at map with a critical eye  Whether we believe it or not o Ex. Argentinian stamp = indicates that they own a part of Antarctica but they really don‟t Telling Lies via Maps:  Lies, Damn Lies, and Statistics  How to lie with maps: o Different ways that cartographers can influence the reader of the map by the way they represent things  Small scale map  Shows very large area of earth‟s surface  Obscures a lot of detail from particular areas  Ex. boundary between two countries  Lines  Area features  Two types of lies: o White lies o Big lies Social & Cultural History of Maps:  Solving spatial problems o Ex. pictograph  Navigational chart/map o Key to human survival  Reflect current knowledge  Reflect the state of the current thinking and anxiety about the world around us o Ex. map as an art piece  Statement of power and authority  Represent data and have things you are supposed to be looking for in maps to tell how to interpret them Key Considerations in the Production and Understanding of Maps:  Scale = indicates the spatial relationship between real-world locations, distances and areas and their representation on the map o All maps are scaled representations of the real world  Cannot produce a 1:1 scale o Typically expressed as a ratio (1:50000) or a representative fraction (1/50000) o Large scale vs. small scale  Representative fraction:  1/50000 is small number = 0.00002  1/250000 is an even smaller number = 0.000004  A map that is a 1/250000 scale is a smaller scale map than one at 1/50000 o However a 1/2500000 shows a much larger area of the earth‟s surface  Small scale shows large area and generally depict very little detail  Large scale shows a smaller area and generally have greater levels of detail  Perspective = how is the map oriented? o Are there tools provided to help me orient myself on the map?  Tend to put north at the top of the map o “Antipocentric” map = upside down map, south is at the top  Have just chosen to put north at the top in most maps  Students in Australia tend to see this map more  Projection = how do you depict a 3D sphere into 2D? o Mathematic technique for representing 3D into 2D o Can have distortions = distance, direction & area o 3 main types = varying levels of accuracy (pg. 70)  Azimuthal  Cylindrical  Conic  Map type = depends on the spatial data o 2 primary purposes:  Accurately represent data  Solve spatial problems o Ex. topographic map of Hamilton o Ex. dot map = reveal patterns of spatial concentrations or dispersion o Ex. choropleth map = indicate graduated variations in data (ex. population density) o Ex. isopleth map = connect locations of equal data value (ex. temperature o Ex. cartograms = space is distorted to emphasize particular attributes (ex. election map) Population Geography Tuesday, January 22 , 2013 Outline:  Objective and introduction o The Study of Population & Growth  History of Population Growth Reading: Chapters 4 & 5 Objectives & Introduction:  Where do 7 billion people live?  What factors underlie this distribution?  What are the implications and consequences of this distribution? Population Geography:  Demography = study of population o Demos = people o Graphe = to write about  Study of spatial components of demography  Of concern to population geographers: o Growth/decline of population over time  Ex. Canadians having not enough children  Ex. not enough food to provide for big population leads to decline o Spatial differential growth or decline of a population  Ex. children growing up in third world countries or in very rich countries – will they be able to sustain populations? o The causes, and consequences, of population change  Ex. political changes, aging populations, etc. o Spatial distribution of the population and the consequences with respect to global resources (water, energy, food) History of Population Growth:  How have global population levels change over the past 12000 years? (the Holocene period = since last ice age) o 12000 years BP o 2000 years BP o 1650 AD (~350 BP) = 500 million o 1800 AD (~200 BP) = 1 billion o 12000 years = 2 billion o <50 years = 4 billion o <25 years = 6 billion  What factors have contributed to these population increases/decreases? o Significant populations associated with:  First agricultural revolution (12000 years ago)  Mesopotamia (then Egypt, India, China & Mesoamerica)  Keys:  Increases food production = food surplus o Ability to grow your own food  Used to have to follow migrating packs of animals, use harvests, etc. o Ability to raise animals, use irrigation, germinate seeds  Increasing labour specialization o Ex. bakers, machine operators, etc.  Permanent settlement o No more migration to follow animals o Ex. farms, communities, businesses  Industrial revolution (18 & 19 century)  Keys:  Increasing food production o Use of machinery in the agricultural world (ex. tractors) o Fertilizers o Types of seeds  Increased standard of living o Better housing, clothing, heat o Stabilizes population  Declining death rates (prior to changes in birth rate) o Population growth o Due to food production & standard of living  Epidemics (ex. the plague) = population would grow and then a large chunk of population would be wiped out by epidemic/pandemic  Grow & fall model  “One step forward two steps back” Population Distribution & Density:  Distribution = how things are spatially arranged  World population distribution: o Asia vs. all other areas  Areas of population concentration  Large areas of planet are sparsely populated  Density = frequency with which a geographic phenomena occurs in a certain area o The spatial scale used affects the density:  Consider Canada:  3.1 persons/sq.km.  Southern Ontario: 85 persons/sq.km  Most dense area in Canada  Variation in different areas  Factors that affect distribution & density: o Physical factors:  Some areas more suited for human habitation than others  Ex. desert vs. Southern Ontario  In general:  Temperature  Water availability  Physiography  Soil quality o Human factors:  Cultural and economic factors  State formation = politics  Health care systems  Economic system = communism, capitalism, etc… th Friday, January 25 , 2013 MISSED LECTURE! Tuesday, January 29 , 2013 Population Growth Theory: Malthus Wrote “An Essay on the Principle of Population” (1798)  Argument = two key things going on over time: o Food supply increase – linear  Steady increases in food supply with ability to cultivate the land o Population increase – exponential  3 time periods we need to be thinking about: o Food > population  Ample supply to feed population o Food = population  Assumed this occurred in about 1800 o Food < population  Concerning time period  Central to Malthus‟ ideas about population  Preventative “checks” on population: o Cultural changes will effect population  Ex. getting married later = fertility rates decline  Positive checks on population = positive in the sense that it lowers the amount of population o War = insufficient food leads to global combat o Famine = people dying of hunger o Environmental issues o Disease  Neo-Malthusians = current people who agree with Malthus & rehashing his argument  Is his theory true? o Inability to predict what would actually happen with the food supply  Not linear  Since 1800, there has been an exponential increase in food supply  Still have more food than we need at this point in time  Industrial revolution & agricultural revolution Demographic Transition Theory (DTT):  Fertility and mortality are the important part of population dynamics o Have economical impacts o Changes in population over time  Over time crude death rates and crude death rates change  DTT Diagram: o Stage 1  High BR & High DR  Equilibrium  War & disease cause fluctuations in death rate o Stage 2  High BR & Declining DR  Economic development  Increased standard of living (ex. industrialization)  Better food, housing, health care, life, etc…  Sanitation introduced = better water  Population explosion o Stage 3  Declining BR & Low DR  Children are expected to live = fertility rates decrease o Stage 4  Low BR & Low DR  Equilibrium  Canada‟s current stage  To what extent does this matter? o Developed world = matches perfectly with experiences of all richer countries in the world  Model was based primarily on countries like Canada, US, Britain, etc.. o Developing world = fit less well to the DTT but still similarities  Many countries are in stage 3 Fertility Transition Theory:  Explains experiences going on in developing world  Developed world (19 -20h thcentury) = fertility declines o Connected to economic development = increased standard of living th  Developing world (20 century) = fertility is declining o More about social and cultural changes, not economic  Ex. contraceptive use  85% of people using are using modern forms (ex. condoms & the pill)  Result of public education messages sent through media and governments in attempt to change cultural behaviors  Control the growth of the population  Large families = no longer a need for large families o When death rates were high, people had more kids because they knew that many of them would not survive into adulthood  Social safety net = have kids so then they can support parents when they are older  Social status o Especially for women = dramatic shift in last couple of decades for empowerment of women  Right to chose whether they want children/not and how many they want  Cultural transition = changing and resulting in decline in fertility rates  Role of government in affecting fertility: o Role in changing levels of fertility and population dynamics o 3 main ways to alter population:  Increase/decrease births:  Pro-natal policies = want more babies  Ex. lowering marriage age, Canada‟s baby bonus  Anti-natal policies = design to decrease about of births  Ex. Africa‟s sterilization project  Decrease (or increase) deaths:  Via health care, etc…  Encourage/discourage migration:  Via immigration laws  Ex. hard to migrate out of Cuba Population Structure:  Draw connections between government policies, the changes in population (migration, birth & death), etc…  Population pyramid = representation of age and sex structure of a population o Expanding population = fertility rates are high  Each level of the pyramid is bigger than the one above it  Each couple is having enough children to increase population o Diminishing population = fertility rates are low  More people in the post-reproductive stage than in the pre-reproductive stage  Not enough children to replace dying population Friday, February 1 , 2013 MISSED LECTURE! Social and Cultural Geography 9/6/2013 12:31:00 PM Tuesday, February 5 , 2013 Outline:  Intro  Culture & society  Defining culture  Folk & popular culture  Cultural regions & landscapes Reading: Chapter 6 Introduction:  Routines of daily life and commonalities between people = attributed to culture = Cultural Attributes o Ie. Religious beliefs, languages spoken, ethnic/ancestral origin, age, gender, and individual personality  Dominance in our society  Other parts of the world = different cultures o May not be key in other parts of world o Consider:  Culture of London, England vs. New Guinea  Would they be familiar with your culture?  Would you be familiar with their culture?  Would they be more or less familiar with your culture than you are with theirs?  Culture = way of life of members of a society o Varies over geographical space o Tied to beliefs, values, lifestyles, etc… o The emergence and history of culture = “civilization” o Subculture:  Ex. ethnic minorities, sexual minorities, teenagers  Is there a distinct Canadian culture? o Or do we share common culture with others? o Canadian vs. American culture:  Shared traits:  Same language  Same form of governments  Same economic system (capitalist)  Broad sweep of religions  Interests in pop culture  Unique traits:  Different cultural symbols  Different role in global politics  Peacekeepers vs. fighters  North American culture: o Related to nations and nationalities  Cultural geographers = spatial distribution of cultural activities, their health areas, and the process of diffusion across space Forms of Culture:  Non-material: o Mentifacts = key attitudinal elements/values  Ex. religion, language o Sociofacts = involved in group formation  Social norms that govern interpersonal relationships  Ex. respect for elders  Material: o Artifacts = all tangible elements related to how people live their lives  Ex. modes of transit, housing, clothing, etc… o 2 categories based on scale:  Folk culture = cultural practices and material culture associated with usually relatively small and isolated cultural groups  Group is homogenous  Small amounts of interaction  Popular culture = cultural practices and material culture not associated with small groups or isolated groups  Heterogeneous = different across population  Wide spread spatial distribution = large group  High amounts of interactions  Ex. wearing jeans  Communication: o Very important role today o Stops isolated groups from being so isolated o Exposed to cultural phenomena from other cultures o Ex. internet, phone, media, etc… o Folk culture is becoming less significant because popular culture keeps growing Cultural Regions and Landscapes:  Cultural region = spatial area in which cultural practices are dominant o An area with a degree of homogeneity in cultural characteristics o Spatial scale matters  Ex. McMaster map = different regions on campus because of different faculties  Ex. Hamilton map = McMaster turns into an academic area, vs. residential, industrial, etc. areas o Regionalization is important = varies from one person to the next  Cultural landscape = outcome of interactions between people and their environments; the visible human imprint on land o Reflect human modifications o Region & landscape are interrelated  Cultural adaptation = adjustment by people and cultures, to the challenges posed by the physical environment o As cultures change, they produce a new landscape o Ex. clothing choices reflect environmental circumstances in which we live  Clothing space in closet for cold weather, as well as hot weather o Each culture becomes more and more different o Not a static process = constantly changing and adapting o Physical environment is always changing (ex. climate change) o Modify physical landscape based on needs of culture o Evolution constantly th Tuesday, February 12 , 2013 Outline:  Introduction  Language o Different types o Classification and regionalization o An example o Global Dominance of English o Dialects & accents Reading: Chapter 6 – pg. 226-235 Introduction:  Mother tongue = language that you first learn  Languages spoken by Canadians/Hamiltonians: o Canadian:  19 million = English  7 million = French  6.6 million = other o Hamiltonian:  379k = English  7k = French  118k = other Language and Cultural Groups:  Important cultural variable  Can study the regional extent of language groups  Fundamental way that cultural groups differentiate themselves from one another  Survival of cultural groups is very much connected to the survival of languages o Ever evolving Quebec sign law = use of English on their signs = believe very strongly that they need to preserve their language = do not want English to take over so then they have their own cultural group  How many languages are there: o Best estimate = 7000 languages prior to period of European colonization  Today = less than 6000 languages o Is the loss of language a problem?  Negative = if languages are connected to cultural identity, then cultural diversity is being lost  Positive = fewer languages = chances of us all being able to communicate is stronger o Language family:  A group of closely related languages that likely originated from the same ancient origin  2 biggest:  Indo-European:  430 languages  2.5 million speakers  Sino-Tibetan  Within a language family there are language branches:  A subset of a language family, and with a more recent origin  Ex. Indo-European:  Romance languages (ex. French, Spanish, Italian, etc.…)  Germanic languages (ex. English, German, Dutch, etc.…) Classification and Regionalization:  European colonization = Indo-European languages diffused to other parts of world o Isolation and diffusion o Brought English and French to North America o Mainly Spanish to South America o …List goes on An Example: Indo-European Languages:  English = a global family  One source started it and then diffusion led to spread of language o In and around the Black Sea  Cultural groups adapted to their local environment and by doing so created new languages o Adapted cultural practices and over thousands of years made new languages o As population diffuses, the languages change more  English = mixing of many other languages = very complicated language o 3 times as many words in English as there are in German, and 5 times as many as French Global Dominance of English:  Is there a global language? o English vs. Mandarin  About a billion people who speak Mandarin  Vast majority live in a single country  Very isolated language  About 340 million people speak English  English is spoken around the world  Geographical distribution around the planet  Official language of 50 governments  What other evidence do we have for the dominance of English? o Air travel  Ex. Polish pilot speaks to French pilot in English o Media  News, radio, pop culture o Internet  Projections looking like the early part of the next decade that there will be more Chinese speaking internet users than other languages Dialects & Accents:  Micro-scale variations in languages  Dialect = regional variation of a particular language o Vocabulary, spelling, pronunciation o Connected to cultural adaptation o Ex. English in England vs. North America  Loo vs. washroom  Lorry vs. truck o Ex. within North America  Washroom vs. restroom  Interstate vs. highway  Zee vs. zed Textbook Notes (Ch. 1,2,4,5) Chapter 1: What is Human Geography?  Purpose = to describe the world  Classical Geography: o Greeks = first to become geographically mobile and establish colonies o Aristotle = developed possible relationships between latitude, climate and population density o Eratosthenes = father of geography  Longitude = angular distance on the earth measured east and west of the Prime Meridian o Runs through Greenwich, England = 0 degreees  Latitude = angular distance on the surface of the earth measured north and south of the equator  Topography = refers to local areas within countries  Contemporary Geography: o 7 major trends:  Increasing separation of the physical and human components of geography  Revitalized landscape approach  Revitalized regional geography  Ongoing interest in spatial analysis  Recognition of the need for a global perspective  Increasing concern with applied matters  Increasing emphasis on technical content o Physical and Human Geography:  Tend to teach and research the two separately o Contemporary Landscape Geography:  Considered with symbolic features and visible features  Focus on human experience of being in landscape  Reflect culture, social, politics and economic processes o Contemporary Regional Geography:  Emphasizes the understanding and description of a particular region and what it means for different people to live there  Reflects at least 3 general concerns:  Regions as setting or locals for human activity  Uneven economic and social development between regions  Ways in which regions reflect the characteristics of the occupying society and in turn affect that society o Contemporary Spatial Analysis:  Theoretical constructs used to explain locations are somewhat limited  Tends to emphasize generalizations and not specifics Chapter 2: Studying Human Geography  Human Geographic Concepts: o Involves two basic endeavors:  Need to establish facts  Need to understand and explain facts o Space:  Areal extent; a term used in both absolute (objective) and relative (subjective) forms  Absolute space = exists in the areal relations among phenomena on the earth‟s surface  Objective  At the heart of mapmaking  Relative space = socially produced and therefore unlike absolute space is subject to continuous change  Perceptual  Spatial separatism (fetishism) = human geography based on spatial analysis focuses on space alone as an explanation of human nature  Treating space as a cause without reference to humans o Location:  Refers to a specific part of the earth‟s surface; an area where something is situated  Absolute location = position with reference to an arbitrary mathematical grid system such as latitude and longitude  May not be as meaningful as a relative location, which do change  Can be described by reference to its place name or toponym  Ex. Canada, Manitoba, Winnipeg, Portage Avenue  Site = local characteristics of a location  Ex. map of Winnipeg  Situation = location relative to another location  Ex. Winnipeg plotted on a map of Canada o Place:  Location; in humanistic geography, „place‟ has acquired a particular meaning as a context for human action that is rich in human significance and meaning  Values that we associate with the location  Is not about where we live, is about how we live where we live  Sense of place = attachments that we have with location with personal significance  Sacred space = landscapes that are particularly esteemed by an individual or group, usually for a religious reason  Placelessness = identify landscapes that are relatively homogenous and standardized  Ex. tourist landscapes, commercial areas, and suburbs  Move evident in industrial world than post- industrial world  Topophilia = „love of place‟  Positive feelings that link humans to particular environments  Topophobia = dislike of a landscape that may prompt feelings of anxiety, fear or suffering o Region:  Regionalization = process of classification in which each specific location is assigned to a region  Types of regions:  Functional (nodal) = area with locations related to each other or to a specific location  Distribution of city newspaper  Formal (uniform) = area with one or more traits in common  Ex. area with German-speaking people  Vernacular = regions perceived to exist by people either within or outside of them  Ex. Bible belt in U.S.A  4 applications of the concept of regions:  Regionalization is a valuable simplifying tool; exercise of classifying in itself may be a valuable aid to understanding of landscapes  Delimitation of formal regions was central the chorological approach that dominated during much of the first half of the 20 thcentury  Delimitation of functional regions was important for spatial analysis  Many contemporary geographers see vernacular regions as crucial to our understanding of human landscapes o Distance:  Quantifiably measurable = important for spatial analysis  Spatial dimension of separation  Distribution = pattern of geographic facts within an area  Everything is related to everything else, but near things are more related than distant things  Distance decay = declining intensity of any pattern or process with increasing distance from a given location  Friction of distance = measure of the restraining effect on distance on human movement  Time and cost involved in overcoming distance  Accessibility = variable quality of a location, expressing the ease with which it may be reached from other locations  Indicates relative opportunities for contact and interaction  Interaction = movement, trading, or other form of communication between locations  Agglomeration = situations in which locations are close in proximity to one another  Spatial grouping of humans or activities to minimize the distances between them  Deglomeration = spatial separation of humans or activities so as to maximize the distances between them  Can be measured in economic, temporal, cognitive or social terms = relative  Can be measured by a standard unit of measure = absolute o Scale:  Resolution levels used in any human geographic research; most characteristically refers to the size of the area studied, but also to the time period covered and the number of people investigated  Spatial, temporal and social  Choice of scale depends on question being posed  Use concept of scale in two different ways:  Ratio of distance  Maps of large areas are small scale and maps of small areas are large scale  To decide whether locations in a given area are clustered, or dispersed o Diffusion:  Spread of a phenomenon over space and growth through time  Ex. migration of people  3 important ideas:  Neighborhood effect = situations where diffusion is distance biased = phenomenon spreads first to individuals nearest its place of origin  Hierarchal effect = first diffuses to large cities then to centres of decreasing size  S-Shaped curve = diffusion proceeds slowly at first, then very rapidly, then slow again o Perception:  Process by which humans acquire information about physical and social environments  Mental images and maps are important for 6 different reasons:  Mental images of other places and people are always changing  Research into mental maps demonstrate that humans have varying perceptions of their environment  The mental maps of particular individuals are of great importance  Serious problems can arise when people in positions of power have distorted mental maps  Mental maps do change  Mental maps of relatively unknown areas are especially subject to error o Development:  Refer to a process of becoming larger, more mature, and better organized  Often referred to in economic manner o Discourse:  “speech”  Refers to way of communicating, in speech or writing, that serves to identify the person communicating as a member of a particular group o Globalization:  Complex combination of economic, political, and cultural changes that have long been evident that have accelerated markedly since about 1980, bring about a seemingly ever-increasing connectedness of both people and places  Bring separated people and places together  Increases quantity of goods, information and people  Techniques of Analysis: o Cartography:  Science of map-making  Communicate information  Portray spatial data  Scale is always found on a map  Type of map depends on data  Dot map = towns, wheat farming, cemeteries, etc…  Choropleth = thematic map using colour to indicate density of a particular phenomenon in a given area  Isopleth = map using lines to connect locations of equal data value  Ex. equal time, transport costs, etc… o Computer-Assisted Cartography:  Digital mapping  Allows us to amend maps by adding in new and revised data o Geographic Information Systems:  Computer based tool that combines several functions = storage, display, analysis, mapping  Come from Canada = 1960s  Vector approach = describes the data as a collection of points, lines, and areas and describes the location of each of these  Raster approach = divides the area into numerous, small cells and pixels, and describes the content of each cell o Remote Sensing:  Variety of techniques used for acquiring and recording data from points that are not in contact with the phenomena of interest o Qualitative Methods:  Set of tools used to collect and analyze data in order to subjectively understand the phenomena being studied; the methods including passive observation, participation and active intervention o Quantitative Methods:  Set of tools used to collect and analyze data to achieve a statistically description and scientific explanation of the phenomena being studied; the methods include sampling, models, and statistically testing Chapter 4: A Crowded Home  Demography = science that studies the size and makeup of populations  Fertility: o All aspects of human reproduction lead to live births o 2009 – population =6.8 billion o 2025 – population = 8.0 billion o 2050 – population = 9.4 billion o Fertility & mortality equation:  P(now) = P (original) + B – D o Fertility, mortality & immigration:  P (now) = P (original) + B – D + I – E o Crude birth rate = total number of births given in a given period per 1000 people already living:  CBR = number of births in one year / mid-year total population * 1000  Range from 10-55  May be misleading because births are related to total population, not the population that can conceive = fecundity o General fertility rate = actual number of live births per 1000 women in the fecund age range (15-49)  # of live births in a one year period / mid-year # of females aged 15-49 o Total fertility rate = average number of children a woman will have  5 * sum number of women in age group A in a given period / mid-year # of females in age group A  „A‟ refers to the seven five-year age groups o Replacement level fertility = 2.1-2.5 o Factors affecting fertility:  Biological factors = fecundity  Begins at about age 15, peaks at about age 20  Affected by nutritional well-being  Related to diet  Economic factors = modern society favors small families  Cultural factors = marriage, contraceptive use, abortion  Nuptiality rate = # marriages in one year / mid- year total population * 1000 o Variations in fertility = modernization and economic development have prompted lower levels of fertility  Mortality: o Mortality measures:  Crude death rate:  # deaths in one year / mid-year total population *1000  Range from 5-50  Does not consider J-shaped characteristic of age  Infant morality rate:  # deaths under age of 1 / # births that year * 1000  Range from 1.3-163  Sensitive to economic conditions, declining with improved medical and health services and better nutrition  Natural rate of increase = CBR – CDR o World population is still increasing but at a decreasing rate  Government policies: o All policies have the same objective = decrease mortality o Pro-natali= typically in places dominated by a certain culture and in countries where a larger population is perceived as necessary for economic or strategic reasons o Anti-natal = less developed countries have initiated policies designed to reduce fertility  Happens when faced with overpopulation  Composition of a Population: o Age and sex structure:  Population pyramid = diagrammatic representation of the age and sex composition of a population. By convention, the younger ages are at the bottom, males are on the left and females on the right  More males compared to females Chapter 5: An Unequal Home Race and Ethnicity 9/6/2013 12:31:00 PM Tuesday, February 26 , 2013 Outline:  Introduction  Race and Ethnicity o Ethnicity o Race o Ethnicity vs. Race o Spatial distribution Reading: Chapter 7 – pg. 268-281 Introduction:  Citizenship – nationality  Identity – ethnicity Ethnicity & Ethnic Groups:  Hard to define  Ethnicity = an affiliation with a group whose racial, cultural, religious or linguistic characteristics, or national origins distinguish it from the rest of the population  Ethnic group = a group whose members perceive themselves as different from others because of a common ancestry and/or shared culture o Ex. my family is Korean o Based on belonging to a group o Linked to ancestors and to specific cultural traditions o Element of minority status  Individual and group identity o Ex. my family is Irish so I connect to things that are Irish, but I also have connection with others who are Irish  Important components = ethnicity, religion & language = express culture o Ex. the cultural landscape o Ex. the built landscape = neighborhoods  Reflect identity of group that lives in that area  Stores, interior design, traits, habits, etc…  Pride vs. discrimination & conflict o Pride = proud of culture around certain times  Ex. Italians and the world cup o Could be conflicts between groups of different ethnicities o Discrimination based on past events  Globalization = erasing local diversity o Ex. language and religion  Ethnicity = immutable = cannot change it o Cannot change your ancestry or the origin of your identity o Much more permanent and powerful element of cultural identity  Ethnicity = dilutable o Ex. parents are of two different ethnic groups = mixed = lose sense of both of them as compared to if parents were from the same place o No clear sense of where you are from  Canadian Census recognizes the multidimensionality of ethnicity o Incorporates language, race, religion, ancestral origin o All a part of what ethnicity is o 3 major components of ethnicity:  Origin/ancestry = where are your family roots connected to?  Issues:  How far back do we go?  Mixed origins  Public opinion on that ethnicity o Ex. dramatic change around WWII with amount of people who admitted that they were German = not favorable in Canada so they didn‟t mention what nationality they were o Ex. New Berlin renamed as Kitchener  Race = based on genetically imparted physiogenomical features of an individual  Mostly facial features such as skin colour  Physical elements of appearance  Issues:  Social construct = does not exist as a meaningful thing  Change over time = conceptions of time o Ex. in U.S.A. race is a big political issue (black vs. negro vs. African American)  Terminology for race can be ambiguous for some people o Ex. Caucasian vs. white = can obscure responses  Identity = a self-identification of how an individual perceives themselves, rather than their ancestors  Issues:  Many different ways to identify yourself o Language, race, nationality, etc… o Ex. Quebec thinks that they are French Canadian = some other element of identity = language  Depends on what you consider yourself as a part of a cultural group Race:  One of the most problematic concepts that exists in the social sciences  Usually divide population into subgroups based on physical appearances o Ex. height, skin colour, eye colour, hair colour  Purely socially constructed concept  No such thing as distinct races within our spaces  Race = genetically distinct group of a species o Do not exist in the human population o All come from the same ancestor  We are all members of the human race Race vs. Ethnicity:  Race and social-human interactions o Physical appearances influence how you perceive and interact with others  Ex. racism  Perceived race = proper term o No scientifically based reason o How we look at other people influences how we act around them  African-American, Asian-American, etc. o Considered a significant element of society in the U.S.A. o These are not racial groupings o Ethnic groupings of people  Shared cultural experience with ancestral origins Spatial Patterns of Ethnicity in the U.S.A:  Major ethnic groups n the U.S have different spatial distributions o Hispanic-American = 15% o African-American = 13% o Asian-American = 5% o American Indian = 1%  Regional patterns: o Based on migration and proximity to origin regions  Ex. Hispanics close to Mexico o Misleading?  Ex. Hispanics would prefer to identify themselves based on their ancestry such as Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, etc.. instead of being grouped as one  Grouping all people together is misleading  Patterns within cities: o Central parts of large American cities o Where we see more patterns is in the larger cities because of migratory patterns th  Ex. African-Americans in 20 century went from south to major cities of west and urban centers of mid-west  Abolition of slavery, urbanization, economic means, etc.  Ex. Detroit = 85% of people are of African-American descent  Other places in Michigan = 7% African-American  Profoundly concentrated in Detroit  Ex. Chicago = similar pattern to Detroit  Within city of Chicago, there are clustered areas of African-Americans and Hispanics  Outside of city, there are mostly white people  What are the consequences of what is going on? o Role of spatial interaction between different groups in the same area o North American immigrant experience o Diversity of immigrants = changed in mid-late 19 thcentury  Residents were mostly British & from north-western parts of Europe th  At the end of the 19 century = less people wanting to migrate from Europe  North America solicited people from other parts of the world  Started with other parts of Europe, then looked to Asia, Latin American, Africa, etc…  Mixing of people with different backgrounds = heterogeneous  Spatial patterning wasn‟t as heterogeneous  Different groups isolated themselves = homogeneity  Could be a result of discrimination or other reasons  Creation of distinct neighborhoods/ghettos  Reflects patterns  Ex. Greektown, Little Italy, Corktown (Irish) Cultural & Symbolic Landscapes 9/6/2013 12:31:00 PM Friday, March 1 , 2013 Introduction:  Recall key concepts o Location = position in space o Place = location with particular meaning  Individual  Collective Cultural Landscapes:  Landscape = visible human imprint on the land o Natural/physical environment o Human environment  Urban, rural, suburban, etc.  Ex. straight concession roads in the country  Ex. arrangement of buildings in downtown Toronto  Cultural landscape = outcome of interactions between people and their environments o Process of adapting environment to practices o Result of cultural adaptation o Meaning & significance transcend to cultural groups  Symbolic landscape = symbols of a culture and what it stands for  7 Wonders (Ancient): o Bucket list of things you need to see before you die  Greek scholar = Herodotus ~ 2500 years ago o Spatially concentrated  Center of Western civilization at that time  Modern 7 Wonders: o Many lists exist o Identify places of cultural importances o Architectural, underwater, etc… o Modern wonders = more spatially dispersed and reflect many cultures  Taken by online survey  100 million votes were cast for the most recent 7 (+1) modern sites  +1 = Pyramids of Giza  7 wonders:  Great Wall of China  Monastery of Petra  Mayan City of Chichen Itza  Machu Picchu  Colosseum of Rome  Taj Mahal  Christ the Redeemer Rural Settlement 9/6/2013 12:31:00 PM Tuesday, March 5 , 2013 Outline:  Introduction  Rural settlement  Forms of rural settlement  Rural issues  Rural vs. urban ways of life Introduction:  Culture = way of life of a group of people  Cultural groups adapt to their local environment o Where and how they live their lives o Settlements = rural and urban  Many different types of settlement  Ex. rural hamlets, towns, cities, mega-cities, etc….  Urban and rural settlements are usually defined in relation to one another o Whatever is not urban, is rural & vice-versa o Urban is easier to define than rural  Large population  Densely settled  Why study rural settlement? o Global population  Distribution = how do the 7 billion people live their lives?  Currently at a point in time where 50% of population lives in rural areas  Africa & Asia = 2/3 of population  Oceania, Europe, North & South America = ¼ population  Shifting from more rural to more urban o Urbanization  Cities are a recent innovation  Cities only around for about 5000 years, but we‟ve been living in them for only a couple hundred of years o Forms of settlement = culture and cultural adaptation  See how different cultural groups experience/modify environment Patterns of Rural Settlement  2 types: o Dispersed:  People living in relative isolation from each other  Distance between each individual family/family unit  Exists a lot in agricultural areas & land-ownership  Connected to forms of capitalist agriculture  Canadian pioneer experience  Settling prairies  Different kinds of patters = geometric vs. irregular patterns  Field patters o Clustered:  Nucleated  Planned vs. organic development  Planned = developed as a communal place for exchange of commodities  Organic = happens over time with people moving near roads/intersections  Sizes can vary  Can be like a city but most people are engaged in agricultural activity  Follows river/roadway  Look at slides for hamlets, villages, grid plan Issues of Rural Settlement:  Depopulation: o Rural depopulation:  Movement of people from rural areas to non-rural areas  Increasing urbanization  Ongoing for the last 100 years in Canada  Farmers do not need as many employees  Can farm larger areas with less labour  Demand for jobs in the city o Farm depopulation:  People leaving farms because it is not benefitting them economically  Farms will be bought by larger companies o Small towns:  Small town grows and is no longer a small town = rare  Small town/villages/hamlets disappear all together  Become ghost town  Result of rural depopulation  Ex. nobody going to school = bye bye school  Repopulation or counter-urbanization: o Rural population gets bigger o Very small circumstances o Ex. tele-commuting = continue to live at the cottage but can work from there o Ex. decentralized industrial activities = some factories set up in rural areas  Some people move to rural areas to work at these institutions o Ex. aging population and retirement communities = choose quiet rural life  The Rural-Urban Fringe: o Transitional zone between outer regions of suburbs and the near edges of the agricultural zone that surrounds the city o “Next suburban center”, “Next site”, etc… = always under transition o Urban sprawl = areas turn into shopping centers, residential communities, etc…  Ruins agricultural areas Rural vs. Urban:  Ways of life?  In what ways are they different? o Gemeinschaft = small town/communal ways of life  Strong personal connections between people and families  Neighborliness o Gesellschaft = depersonalized lifestyle  Is there such thing as an urban way of life that is somehow distinct from the rural way of living? o Louis Wirth = urbanism as a way of life  3 characteristics of cities that make them different from rural areas:  Incorporate large populations  Living in close proximity = high density  Population is heterogeneous = mixing of people of different cultural experiences  Textbook image 11.10 Urban Social Geography 9/6/2013 12:31:00 PM Friday, March 15 , 2013 Outline:  Ethnicity & identity  Ethnic areas an
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