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Michael Mercier

Population geography III: Theories & Consequences of Population Change Introduction Recall: - Population growth Theories of population Growth - Malthus - Fertility transition • Population policy • Population structure • Population Issues Population growth theory: Malthus - Thomas Robert Malthus (1766-1834) - An Essay on the Principle of Population (1798) - Malthus’ argument: 1. Food supply increase – linear (Increase in food is limited) 2. Population increase – Exponential Time periods: 1) Food > Population, 2) Food = Population, 3) Food < Population A. Preventative “checks” on population: Control fertility, etc. B. Positive checks on population: Predict we will start killing each other due to the lack of food (War, conflict, death from starvation etc.) Was Malthus correct? - Agricultural productivity (Increase dramatically our food supply) - Contraception (voluntarily begin to control fertility – economic growth, women started working) Population Growth Theory: Fertility transition - Developed world: 19 and early 20 century - Economic growth th - Developing world: Late 20 century - Social & Cultural change - >50% of couples use contraception (Condoms, birth control) - Large families (The importance of large families is beginning to diminish, no longer need large families to sustain ability to live) - Social status (women rights – education, work etc.) - Cultural transition - Encourages lower fertility Government Population policies Government have the ability to alter population in three ways: 1. Increase/decrease births via “natal” policy - Pro-natal: Promote to increase fertility (i.e. Canada gives benefits to families that have more children) - Anti-natal: Promote to decrease fertility (One child policy in China) 2. Decreasing (or increasing) deaths via health-care,
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